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chapteroutlines_final - Mader/Biology 10/e Chapter Outlines...

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Mader/ Biology , 10/e – Chapter Outlines Chapter 1 1.1 How to Define Life A. Living Things Are Organized 1. Organization of living systems begins with atoms , which make up basic building blocks called elements . 2. The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of all living things. 3. Different cells combine to make up tissues (e.g., myocardial tissue). 4. Tissues combine to make up an organ (e.g., the heart). 5. Specific organs work together as a system (e.g., the heart, arteries, veins, etc.). 6. Multicellular organisms (each an “individual” within a particular species) contain organ systems (e.g., cardiovascular, digestive, respiratory, etc.). 7. A species in a particular area (e.g., gray squirrels in a forest) constitutes a population . 8. Interacting populations in a particular area comprise a community . 9. A community plus its physical environment is an ecosystem . 10. The biosphere is comprised of regions of the Earth’s crust, waters, and atmosphere inhabited by organisms. 11. Each level of organization is more complex than the level preceding it. 12. Each level of organization has emergent properties due to interactions between the parts making up the whole; all emergent properties follow the laws of physics and chemistry. B. Living Things Acquire Materials and Energy 1. Maintaining organization and conducting life-sustaining processes require an outside source of energy , defined as the capacity to do “work.” 2. Metabolism is all the chemical reactions that occur in a cell. 3. The ultimate source of energy for nearly all life on earth is the sun; plants and certain other organisms convert solar energy into chemical energy by the process of photosynthesis . 4. All organisms must maintain a state of biological balance, or homeostasis . Temperature, moisture level, pH, etc. must be maintained within the tolerance range of the organism. Organisms have intricate feedback and control mechanisms to maintain homeostatic balance. C. Living Things Respond 1. Living things interact with the environment and with other living things. 2. Response often results in movement of the organism (e.g., a plant bending toward the sun to capture solar energy, a turtle withdrawing into its shell for safety, etc.). 3. Responses help ensure survival of the organism and allow the organism to carry out its biological activities. 4. The collective responses of an organism constitute the behavior of the organism. 10
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D. Living Things Reproduce and Develop 1. Reproduction is the ability of every type of organism to give rise to another organism like itself. 2. Bacteria, protozoans, and other unicellular organisms simply split in two ( binary fission ). 3. Multicellular organisms often unite sperm and egg, each from a different individual, resulting in an immature individual which develops into the adult.
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