GlidewellNotes4 (1) - Biology 1407 Exam 4 notes Ecology...

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Biology 1407 Exam 4 notes - Ecology Ch.35 - 36 Ecology - scientific study of how individuals interact with their environment 34.1 - organisms have adapted to - evolved in - a particular set of conditions; the “context” of adaptation 34.3-4 (34.5) - organizational levels of biology: 1.1, 34.1 biosphere ecosystem What are emergent community properties and why population are they important to organism (individual) the study of biology? organ system List several emergent organ properties of the levels tissue of organization studied cell in ecology organelles molecule atom Brief history of ecology - practical effort for all of human history - Greeks of 2500 years ago to early 1900’s descriptive ecology - middle 1900’s to present experimental ecology Populations 36.1 - all of the individuals of a single species (can interbreed to produce fertile offspring) in one area - “local species” - individuals that have a high probability of breeding - a breeding unit Ecologist have identified several properties of population: 1. Density - number of individuals in an area or volume of habitat 36.2 - crude density is number of individuals per total area - ex. 1500 large-mouth bass / total surface area of Lake Leon =1500 bass / 300 hectares or 5 bass / ha - easier to measure but less useful - ecological density is number of individuals per usable habitat - ex. 1500 bass / area of lake that bass use in Lake Leon = 1500 bass / 100 hectares or 15 bass / ha - more difficult to measure but more useful 2. dispersion 36.2 - distribution of individuals within population; how individuals are located in relation to other individuals
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- random distribution = no positive or negative interactions between individuals; located by chance ex. plants grow where their seeds have landed - clumped distribution = individuals occur in groups - results from either positive social interactions ex. schooling fish - or individuals using a clumped resource ex. turtles live in shallow area of lake with some vegetation and basking sites - uniform distribution = even space between individuals - results from either negative social interactions ex. plants with root poisons or territorial lizards - or individuals using uniformly distributed resource ex. lizards seeking shelter in uniformly distributed creosote bushes Distribution may change through time ( deer grazing in random pattern during the day but clumped at night; toads in breeding colonies during the spring but widely and randomly distributed the rest of the year) Important to consider biologically real area and changing pattern through time. 3. survivorship in population 36.3 - chance of an individual surviving to old age; when during its life an average individual will die - based on life tables, expressed as survivorship curve *How is survivorship related to the number of offspring produced and the effort devoted to each offspring?
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