The Cold War Begins 11.19.13 - 0The Cold War Begins...

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0The Cold War Begins 11.19.2013Origins oBefore WWII, the US tolerated the USSR It was young, unadvanced, and no threat to the USoAfter the war, capitalism and communism come into conflict oAlways had been uneasy allies US Suspicious of Stalin and his regimes Feared Stalin was possibly “another Hitler”Tensions exacerbated by wartime decisions and easy relations between Britain and the USoThe Kennan Letter, 1946 George Kennan, US diplomat to Moscow Wrote that capitalism and communism could not peacefully coesixt Argued soviets wanted to destabilize capitalist nations “Iron Curtain” would support this view of USSR Soviets want control other nations oTruman Doctrines 12 March 1947 Stated that it was the “policy of the United States” to support people fighting to protect their freedom Fighting a Cold War oContainment policy Prevent expansion of communist influences US uses foreign aid, alliances, and national defense to halt spread of communism Marshall plan oProvided $13 billion to rebuild western Europe oRebuilt, reindustrialized, and made nations economically and politically stable again oTies these nations to the US Est. NATO, 1949 o12 nations, 10 in western Europe, the US and Canada oAttack on one is attack on all Reorganize US military Secretary of defense oArmy, navy, and new air force under single cabinet position Created CIA and National Security council 1948 selective service act 11.21.2013Korea oSoviet-backed North Korea invades South Korea in June 1950 Korea divided at 38thparallel since 1945
Not strategically important to US but in scheme of containment becomes important 3 years of fighting ends with line at 38thparalleloUS Government escalates its dedication to anti-communist forces abroad Begin aid to French in Indochina (Vietnam) o“Arms Race” with soviets leads to massive military build-up Defense spending rising Number of military personnel rising oCold war requires US to accept an support ideas they had long feared and avoided Permanent foreign alliances Foreign aid Massive standing army Economy oBy 1950, economy is still booming GI Bill boosts college and university attendance Industry growing, especially in South and West Oil and natural gas boom to supply energy Sustained by global demand for American goods Europe and Asia rebuilding Union prosper due to war-time concessions from government and business oBlacks Migration out of the south continued Better jobs and some opportunity in North and West New generation of activists reinvigorate protests against “Jim Crow” and disfranchisement Truman desegregates the US military Executive order 9981 in July 1948 Jackie Robinson, Branch Rickey, and the Brooklyn Dodgers desegregate professional baseball in 1947oCollege sports will take longer The Cold War at Home oGeneral fear widespread o

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