08 Altruism & Aggression - Altruism Altruism Prosocial Behavior Altruism is puzzling Altruism Definitions Definitions Does pure altruism exist Does

08 Altruism & Aggression - Altruism Altruism Prosocial...

This preview shows page 1 out of 30 pages.

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 30 pages?

Unformatted text preview: Altruism/ Altruism/ Prosocial Behavior Altruism is puzzling Altruism Definitions Definitions Does “pure” altruism exist? Does “pure” Psychologists’ llove/hate relationship with ove/hate altruism. altruism. Altruism is puzzling Altruism Evolutionary psychology: Evolutionary Predicts competition for Predicts survival survival Logic/Reasoning: Reasons to not help >> reasons to help Cognitive miser perspective: Psychological & physical resources Psychological Theoretical Models Theoretical Evolutionary Psych/ Sociobiology Kin selection • Genetic advancement • Potential for mating Reciprocal altruism Reciprocal • Expect benefit in return Esteem/status enhancement • Gain power/respect/resources Theoretical Models Theoretical Social Norms Norm of reciprocity; fairness, consistency • Christmas cards • Over-benefit & under-benefit Social responsibility norm Social Social justice/fairness norm Social • ‘Belief in a just world;’ Belief • ‘Blame the victim’ The word “because” The “because” Theoretical Models Theoretical Social Exchange Theory Costs/benefits analysis; cognitive framework Time, effort, resources, danger (blood) Ego depletion; cognitive resources Cognitive load, effort reduced altruism Cognitive • Habits & heuristics Being “sweet” “sweet” Candy! (sweet foods) Embodied social cognition Personality reports Personality “Agreeableness” Intentions to volunteer time Eating candy – situational Eating Agreeable & volunteerism Theoretical Models Theoretical Learning Theory Operant conditioning/reinforcement Witnessing others help Modeling behavior Modeling Theoretical Models Theoretical Ethics, values, & morals – mixed evidence Correlational vs. experimental studies Sociological evidence: Religious ppl donate to Sociological charities more, volunteer more time/effort charities However, parables from religious texts (“the “the Good Samaritan”) do not increase helping Good • Desire to help impeded by environmental variables • “In a hurry” outweighs trait religiosity Theoretical Models Theoretical Other evidence: “Anonymous dictator” design Word-scramble prime; religious themes (e.g., Word-scramble “prophet”) more donation Secular “justice” prime (e.g., “jury”) had same Secular effect effect Infants & altruism Infants Spontaneous acts of kindness Independent of socialization, genes, culture Empathy-Altruism instinct Empathy-Altruism We are moved by the suffering of others, We and inspired by acts of kindness and “Elevation” or “Awe” Brain activation for cooperation vs. Brain competition competition Social support & forgiving Better for support-giver Personal fulfillment, Personal development, growth development, Empathy-Altruism instinct Empathy-Altruism Empathy A psychological “mirror” psychological “mirror” Approach (feel-good altruism) or avoidance Approach (reduce negative affect) goals (reduce Generally positive affect or mood Emotional salience vs. Emotional factual information; distance distance Empathy-Altruism instinct Empathy-Altruism Empathy as personality Trait-like concern for others’ well-being Equity/fairness beliefs Altruism “scale” measures behavior Altruism (blood or $$ donations) (blood Bystander effect Bystander “Urban trance” Perceptual errors? Fear of looking foolish? Kitty Genovese Kitty Diffusion of responsibility Experimental evidence # of people and of likelihood of helping likelihood • Response time Aggression & Violence Aggression Panel discussion Panel Next week (11/1) and following (11/8) Topics – religion, politics morality/ethics Open-format, free response discussion Aim – diversity in views/backgrounds Aim If interested, send me: Name, section (1 or 2pm), group (A or B), and Name, brief description of yourself (background/views) (background/views) Studying Aggression Studying Definition: Hurting another person with Definition: intention to hurt. intention Direct vs. indirect Difficult to operationalize Difficult to study ethically How do we isolate causes and relevant How correlates? correlates? Emotional arousal Emotional Anger & frustration Aversive/disgusting stimuli Blocking a goal Blocking Misattribution of arousal The myth of “catharsis” The Emotional arousal Emotional But…small to moderate association Emotion regulation increases with age People use other non-aggressive tactics Aggressive actions can occur without Aggressive emotional arousal emotional Situational forces Situational Bad economy Bad Temperature Alcohol (even as a placebo) Environmental Forces Environmental Wounded pride Insults, provocation, escalation 75% of college students insult someone to their face in public Cultures of Cultures “honor” “honor” Norms for retaliation after humiliation & disgrace after Situational forces Situational Social norms dictate expression of anger In traffic Killing out-group members during wartime “Weapons effect” Displaced aggression Domestic violence Physiology & Personality Physiology Low empathy; psychopathy Narcissism and high self-esteem Physiology Genes, testosterone, serotonin • Raw quantity vs. change Sex & gender Evolutionary Perspective Evolutionary Dominance leadership Dominance Power, resources, influence Pass on genes Intra-sexual competition Evolutionary Perspective Evolutionary Dominance leadership Dominance Power, resources, influence Pass on genes Intra-sexual competition Sexual selection • Mate guarding Women prefer socially Women dominant men dominant • (Also prefer generous men) Modeling/Learning Modeling/Learning Rewards & punishments Gang initiation Modeling – Bobo doll Modeling experiment experiment Effect when model is Effect rewarded rewarded Imitation Imitation Parents Copycat crimes, contagion Modeling/Learning Modeling/Learning Rewards & punishments Punishments backfire, Punishments anger; counter-aggression counter-aggression People retaliate even when they know there People will be negative consequences will • Reactive anger / reciprocity Innate aggression? Innate Freud’s aggression instinct… Homicidal fantasies 80% of men; 60% of women Most involve a male target For men 60% of the time a stranger For For women only 33% of the time a For stranger, much more likely to focus on a romantic partner/spouse romantic Also more fleeting for women Aggression – then and now Aggression Violence is on the decline Pinker – “Better Angels” Murder, warfare rates Murder, Both within societies and internationally Statistical probability; non-violent strategies ...
View Full Document

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture