09 Emotions & Affect - Emotions Affect Emotions The utility of emotions The Drive to act think E movere in Latin in Emotions dont exist in a vacuum

09 Emotions & Affect - Emotions Affect Emotions The utility...

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Unformatted text preview: Emotions & Affect Emotions The utility of emotions The Drive to act, think E + movere in Latin in Emotions don’t exist in a vacuum Arise from mental states, interactions, Arise situations, even muscular movement situations, The utility of emotions The Environment X mental processing emotional experience Negative emotion: Help fix situational or chronic problem/issue Focus on reduction for its own sake is flawed, Focus like inflating self-esteem like The utility of emotions The Evaluate stimuli, create attitudes Communication with others Alerting Bonding Feedback Feedback Learning theory Learning Observation/modeling Response becomes conditioned “Pruning” & neural plasticity Anger Fear Disgust Surprise Happiness Sadness 6 Anger Fear Disgust Surprise Happiness Sadness 7 Evolutionary theory Evolutionary Innate, universally experienced & Innate, recognized recognized Corresponding facial expressions; animal Corresponding behavior behavior Specific emotions triggered for specific Specific behaviors, events, phenomena behaviors, danger fear; separation sadness; danger “positive” event happiness; positive” spirituality awe, elevation Positive vs. Negative Emotions Positive Negative emotions (fear, anger): Rigid response geared toward threatening situations Chronic experience – Chronic associated with psychopathology associated Positive emotions (joy, pride): Less distinct, blend together Response is more flexible Positive + Negative Emotions Positive In combination Social norm inappropriate Social Reality resilience Reality Psychological health Psychological following bereavement, physical/sexual abuse, 9/11 attacks) Effects on cognition Effects Emotions change our thinking Pos/neg mood increase pos & neg Pos/neg thoughts, behavioral intentions thoughts, • Life satisfaction Changes openness/acceptance Changes of people/information as well as skepticism and inquisitiveness skepticism Both cognitive perspectives Both can have value! can “Broaden & build” Positive emotions: Positive Broaden perceptual field Broaden perceptual • Visual focus on big picture, broader visual search Visual patterns (eye tracking) patterns • Negative emotion – narrow visual focus on details Enhance thought-action connectivity • Flexible & creative thinking, openness • More potential options Brainstorming vs. editing “Broaden & build” Broadened Broadened social attention social More overlap btwn schemas for self & friend More imaginative/attentive to friends Increased honesty and self-disclosure Increased “Broaden & build” Broadened Broadened social attention social Reduced prejudice against out-group Reduced members Reduced ability to perceive physical Reduced differences (e.g., skin color) differences Looking beyond superficial “Broaden & build” Build enduring psychological/physical Build resources resources Less pain and chronic health conditions Fight off illness/disease more readily Longer lifespan Affective forecasting Affective Type of emotion vs. intensity and duration Type of emotions of Poor estimates of subjective intensity/duration • E.g., break-ups E.g., People don’t take into account their resilience People and adaptation, and benefits and Generating positive affect Generating The “hedonic treadmill” The “hedonic Effects of neurochemicals (dopamine) Effects decrease over time decrease Most events (even traumatic ones) do Most not have long lasting emotional effects not Winning the lottery vs. paralysis • Recall: uses of adversity • Money can damage relationships Difference is speed of adaptation Difference of Positive Emotions Positive Ward off adaptation with openness & new Ward experiences experiences Self-expansion, growth, challenges Generating positive affect Generating Gratitude expression Interpersonally or diaries Savoring Desserts & moments Capitalization Generating positive affect Generating Mindfulness meditation 3 weeks – increased daily positive emotion 8 weeks – increased physical wellness, weeks agency for goal achievement, relationship quality quality Generating positive affect Generating Forgiveness & social support ~ Empathy-altruism instinct Optimism & meaning-making (free writing) Integrate experiences into life narrative Derive benefits even following negative events Generating positive affect Generating Sex In the context of a In satisfying/secure relationship Caveat: insecure personality Effects on both positive & Effects negative affect negative Generating positive affect Generating Money Steadily increasing salaries; Steadily no upward comparisons no Money can buy happiness… If you spend it the right way If you Gifts for close others, Gifts building teamwork, donations/altruism donations/altruism Emotional Intelligence (EQ) Emotional 4 Components/Abilities: Perceive & express emotion clearly & Perceive accurately accurately Generate emotions appropriately Generate emotions & facilitate thought thought Emotional knowledge & Emotional understanding understanding • Links between emotions Emotion regulation Emotion regulation Emotional Intelligence Emotional EI ≠ banishing negative affect Minimizing or eliminating neg emo is Minimizing associated with lower EI EI Recall: ironic rebound Emotions serve us, Emotions not the other way around not Emotional Intelligence Emotional People with high EI: Better close relationships (less conflict & Better higher satisfaction) higher • Even when controlling for general personality & Even cognitive intelligence (e.g., math, verbal reasoning) cognitive More friends/higher popularity Mixed evidence for academic outcomes Higher general life satisfaction Promoting EI Promoting “Emotional Literacy” in school curricula Context of prevention (AIDS, drug abuse, Context peer violence, etc.) or character development peer Outcomes: Lower school violence Lower feelings of hopelessness In development: workplace training Mood regulation Mood Effective Strategies: Exercise or healthy expenditure of energy Music (esp. calming music) Social interaction/engagement Active distractions (errands, hobbies) Sex Expressive writing / meaning-making Meditation and relaxation techniques Mood regulation Mood Ineffective Strategies: “Catharsis” (for anger, frustration) Passive distractions (TV) Social isolation Food / eating Excessive sleep/lethargy Substance usage and abuse Stimulus avoidance ...
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