10 Religion & Morality - 1 - Religion Morality Religion Big Questions Big Existential questionsand answers Human consciousness Terror Management

10 Religion & Morality - 1 - Religion Morality Religion Big...

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Unformatted text preview: Religion & Morality Religion Big Questions Big Existential questions…and answers Human consciousness Terror Management Theory (TMT) Mortality salience anxiety/distress Mortality Increased belief in supernatural agents, Increased afterlife, mind/body distinctions afterlife, Belief in God vs. spirituality? Foxhole atheism Foxhole Mortality salience Mortality Worldview defense; system justification system Effects for religious and secular Explicit (survey) vs. implicit (IAT) scores Supernatural ≈ real vs. imaginary Religion & coping Religion Universality of suffering & harm Even to innocent people • “His sun to rise on the evil and on the good, and His sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust” sendeth • Buddhism – 1st Noble Truth Divine purpose isn’t random “Belief in a just world” Religion & coping Religion When things go wrong… In-group social support God as a parental figure “…personal relationship with God” • Proximity-seeking under stress/threat Compensatory control; SDT Compensatory • External attributions Meaning-making from trauma Happiness & well-being Religion as social identity Religion 70% of Americans say religious identity >> 70% other social identity (ethnic, geographic, etc.) etc.) Identity continuity, certainty Identity Advertise the self to others Share beliefs & Share social connectivity social Ease to generate values Ease influence judgments/decisions Religion & social identity Religion Mind perception & assessment Fast judgments of others; “Halo effect” Fast “Halo Thoughts/attitudes Thoughts/attitudes behavior E.g., lust (fantasy) & adultery (action) Intentionality Intentionality Religion & social issues Religion Moralizing normative behavior E.g., sex, eating, work Religious vs. secular people: • Less adultery, more happiness Self-control/willpower Experimental religious primes Lower rates of suicide in societies Lower with more social norms (“tighter” societies) with • More causes, values, meaning God as the enforcer God God post-mortem justice God Social loyalty & good behavior Experimental evidence Experimental less cheating in lab tasks cheating Even in non-social settings Even (e.g., math tests) (e.g., “Mean Gods make good people” 10 commandments & honor pledges Religious groups Religious Conflict & competition Resources, territory, ideas Group “deservingness” and “victimization” Group “deservingness” Moral strivings & viciousness (“holy war”) Religious prejudice >> racial prejudice Caveat: historical artifact Mortality salience Mortality mixed effects Support for violence & peace Religion binds communities Religion Group-level moral concerns & pathogens “Parasite-stress”; outsiders are “undesirable” Atheists are most distrusted, least liked Atheists group (by far) group Distrust Belief that God watches Distrust Belief discrimination discrimination Job hiring (teachers, day care) ...
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