06 Attitudes - Attitudes Attitudes Questions Questions Are dogs loyal Yes\/No How challenging is school 1 = not at all 2 = a little bit 3 = somewhat 4 =

06 Attitudes - Attitudes Attitudes Questions Questions Are...

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Unformatted text preview: Attitudes Attitudes Questions Questions Are dogs loyal? Yes/No How challenging is school? 1 = not at all 2 = a little bit 3 = somewhat 4 = moderately 5 = extremely Questions Questions Facebook is Facebook Public Addictive Addictive Necessary Necessary 54321 54321 54321 Private Private Non-habitual Non-habitual Unnecessary Unnecessary What are attitudes? What Attitude = schema about a topic. Attitude Beliefs (cognitive; schematic) Ex: dogs are loyal, school is challenging Evaluation (emotional/affective) Ex: music and dancing are fun Behavioral expression Impression-management Social bonding & attraction Directional causality Attitude Formation Attitude Learning Theory Classical & operant conditioning Attitude Formation Attitude “I hold it that a little rebellion now and then hold is a good thing, and as necessary in the political world as storms in the physical.” political Attitude Formation Attitude “I hold it that a little rebellion now and then hold is a good thing, and as necessary in the political world as storms in the physical.” political - Thomas Jefferson - Joseph Stalin Attitude formation Attitude Mere exposure Repeated/prolonged exposure to stimulus Person, idea, neutral/inanimate object Assumes initial neutral attitude Attitude-Behavior link? Attitude-Behavior Should attitudes predict behavior? Attitudes and behaviors can be inconsistent. Ex: About 30% surveyed in U.S. say that sex Ex: before marriage is wrong before By age 20, 75% surveyed in U.S. said that By they’ve had premarital sex – though this number is in decline number At age 45, it’s even higher Specificity Specificity Attitude toward… Behavior Correlation Birth Control in Birth general general Birth Control pills in Birth general general Use Birth Use Control pills Control Use Birth Use Control pills Control .08 ns .08 ns Using Birth Control Using pills at some point pills Using them in next 2 Using years years Use Birth Use Control pills Control Use Birth Use Control pills Control .53 .32 .58 Attitude-Behavior link? Attitude-Behavior Reasoned Action Model Attitude Thinking Behavior Attitude Planning and accessibility • Ex: exercise routine Attitude-Behavior link? Attitude-Behavior Reasoned Action Model Individual attitude + Subjective/social norm • Ex: gender differences sexual behavior in Ex: college students college • Ex: cannabis (pot) smoking in adolescence Attitude-Behavior link? Attitude-Behavior Attitude strength Extremity of emotion; degree of certainty vs. Extremity ambivalence ambivalence • Ex: political attitudes, cigarettes/alcohol Stronger attitudes are more consistent, and Stronger higher linked with behavior higher Attitude-Behavior link? Attitude-Behavior Attitude strength Increasing information/evidence • Mere exposure ≈ increasing info Direct personal experience & self-interest Ex: Nancy Reagan & stem cell research Ex: Drinking age raised in Michigan Attitude-Behavior link? Attitude-Behavior Stability vs. change Time and fluctuation based on experience Ex: voting 2 months & 2 days before election Relevance to behavior Ex: Church attendance & belief in God Attitude Change Attitude Equilibrium vs. learning/conditioning Cognitive dissonance – inconsistency between attitude & behavior (or a 2nd between attitude) attitude) Two cognitions: 1) Believe “X” Believe “X” 2) Publicly stated “not X” or Publicly Publicly behaved “not X” “not Unpleasant mental state Studies in Cognitive Dissonance Studies Original Festinger (1950s) study Pegs & screws (very boring task) “How enjoyable was the task?” Fake the next participant $20 or $1 condition Cognitive dissonance Cognitive Question Control How enjoyable -.45 were the tasks? How much did you learn? 3.08 Scientific importance 5.60 Participate in similar experiment -.62 $1 $20 Cognitive dissonance Cognitive Question Control $1 $20 How enjoyable -.45 were the tasks? -.05 How much did you learn? 3.08 3.15 Scientific importance 5.60 5.18 Participate in similar experiment -.62 -.25 Cognitive dissonance Cognitive Question Control $1 $20 How enjoyable -.45 were the tasks? 1.35 -.05 How much did you learn? 3.08 2.80 3.15 Scientific importance 5.60 6.45 5.18 Participate in similar experiment -.62 1.20 -.25 Cognitive Dissonance Cognitive Other examples: Fried grasshoppers Consumer behavior Consumer • Choosing amongst equal alternatives Doomsday cults (change the date) Attitude Change Attitude Cognitive dissonance 1) 2) 3) Necessary factors: Feeling of free choice in decision Minimal external justification Can’t go back and change behavior/reverse Can’t decision decision • • Being in public is another moderating factor Also: must be aware of discrepancy Also: aware ...
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