07 Persuasion & Social Influence - Persuasion Social Influence Persuasion Persuasion the Source Persuasion Similarity familiarity Similarity

07 Persuasion & Social Influence - Persuasion Social...

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Unformatted text preview: Persuasion & Social Influence Persuasion Persuasion – the Source Persuasion Similarity & familiarity Similarity Experiences, demographics, mannerisms, Experiences, appearance/clothing appearance/clothing Likability, charisma Cooperative behavior Demonstrating agreeableness Demonstrating No conflict of interest Or, against own interest Or, own Authority figure/expert Authority The Audience The Personality Need for cognition – strong arguments Self-consciousness/self-monitoring Brand names, styles, celebrities Motivation Personal relevance Distraction & fatigue “Dilution effect;” “ego depletion;” automatic Dilution processing processing The Audience The Age Young adults more “open” (information, Young attitudes, experiences), older adults most resistant resistant Intelligence Moderate levels of intelligence most easily Moderate persuaded persuaded Resisting Attitude Change Resisting Source derogation Inoculation Rehearse counterarguments Situational factors: Forewarning of intent to persuade Forewarning of position of the message Compliance strategies Compliance Conditioning - Association with a positive Conditioning mood/affect mood/affect Flattery Negative affect – moderate works well Compliance Strategies Compliance Norm of reciprocity Consistency Consistency Hare Krishna donations Hare Free samples Door in the face “That’s not all” Compliance Strategies Compliance Scarcity “Hard to get” valuable heuristic Hard Deadline technique Reactance Norm of reciprocity Compliance Strategies Compliance Commitment to a course of action Again, consistency “Watch my stuff” Foot in the door Low balling Compliance Strategies Compliance Commitment to a course of action Initiation rituals & hazing Group belonging Cognitive dissonance; effort justification effort How do we influence people? How Compliance – requests and persuasion Obedience – authoritative force Conformity – mimic the group Obedience Obedience Types of influential status/power: Information (gossip) & reputation Good deeds vs. transgressions Stigmatization Conditioning/learning • Premack Principle Ostracism (group behavior) Obedience Obedience Types of influential power: Authority Expertise Charisma or referent power Legitimate power (police, teachers) Coercion • Violence or threat of violence Obedience Obedience Milgram study Obedience Obedience Milgram study facts: 2/3 obeyed through highest shock level (450 2/3 volts); ½ fully obeyed Obedience declined somewhat in downtown Obedience Connecticut office (not affiliated with Yale campus) campus) Zimbardo’s coda Obedience Obedience Milgram study: Proximity of “learner” and authority figure Proximity “learner” Direct contact (“responsibility”) Replication Stop at 150 volts, 1st protest, and extrapolate Modeling and/or social support No sex/gender differences No education/SES differences Personality Implications Implications Good vs. evil Power of the situation (external attribution) Environmental context; socialization “Replicating Milgram” Conformity Conformity Conformity Conformity Social norms; in-group pressure Normative Social Influence • Desire to “fit in” Desire “fit Informative Social Influence • Desire to be “correct” Desire “correct” Desire for consistency • Cognitive dissonance (sometimes) Asch Line study Asch Conformity Conformity Autokinetic effect 3 people judge light movement, conform people gradually gradually Bring in 4th, quickly conforms to group norm Bring 5th, 6th person – entirely new group Trans-generational norms Variables that influence conformity Variables Motivation to belong, liking, or commitment Motivation to a group to Social support for resisting Anonymity – blind responses Variables that influence conformity Variables Size of the group Larger more conformity Larger Anonymity is the exception Status within group Curvilinear association Personality Self-esteem, anxiety, vague self-concept Variables that influence conformity Variables Minority influence Consistency in arguments/behavior Confidence (a priori knowledge, expertise) Confidence Independence (no conflict of interest) Conformity Conformity Positive psychology perspective Health & well-being Safety Safety Littering, recycling Littering, ...
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