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human memory exam1 study guide

human memory exam1 study guide - History 1 Aristotle's laws...

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History 1. Aristotle’s laws of association: - Similarity : holds that ideas or experiences that are ALIKE/SIMILAR are more easily remembered, eg. wais iq test and the $100,000 pyramid - Contrast : holds that ideas or experiences that are OPPOSITES are more easily remembered, eg. the tasks on Password tv show - Frequency : holds that the more frequently we encounter an idea or experience the greater the likelihood that we will remember it. Can be applied to both cognitive and motor behaviors, eg. repetition breeds familiarity, & practice can make perfect - Contiguity : holds that ideas or experiences that OCCUR CLOSE TOGETHER IN TIME tend to become linked to one another, experiencing one brings up the memory of the other. (used to explain what happens in classical conditioning) 2. Empiricists vs. Nativists: - empiricism : centered on the beliefs that the mind can be analyzed mechanistically and that experience is the fundamental way in which we learn about the world (Francis Bacon & Thomas Hobbes) - nativism : argues that much of our most important thoughts are innate or inborn (Rene Descartes) 3. Contributions of Weber and Fechner to scientific psychology - Weber’s Law: for an increment in a stimulus to be just noticeably different, the size of the change is a certain proportion of the stimulus magnitude - Fechner’s Law: based on Weber’s law, in which a sensation is directly proportional to the logarithm of the magnitude of the physical stimulus multiplied by a constant 4. Ebbinghaus - generally identified as the first major scientific researcher of memory - published in 1885 “Memory: A Contribution to Experimental Psychology” (combined Fechner’s techniques about sensation with the topic of memory) - 1 st experimental psychologist, outside of psychophysicists, who understood and used the concepts of: 1) measurement error 2) distributions of observations around a mean 3) the importance of evaluating differences between two conditions in light of error associated with the respective means
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- reported what is perhaps the first true experiment on memory 5. distributed vs. massed practice - distributed: distributing your learning trials across a period of time (“little and often”) although any single session has to be long enough that you can remember something in each session - massed: multiple rehearsal episodes that occur without a break 6. classical conditioning: Pavlov’s dogs - unconditioned stimulus: a stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response - conditioned stimulus: an initially neutral stimulus that elicits a conditioned response that is acquired through learning and can vary greatly amongst individuals 7. behaviorist vs. cognitive psychology - behaviorism: emphasizing observed behavior of organisms and rejecting the idea that unobservable concepts such as thought can be studied in a scientific manner - cognitive: primarily focused on thinking or cognition. Topics include perception, memory, language, decision making, reasoning, and problem solving (1950s) Sensory Memory 1. iconic memory: -
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