Geo Exam 1


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GEOLOGY 1066 DINOSAURS, CATASTROPHES, AND EXTINCTIONS Study Sheet for Part 1 What are dinosaurs? Coined by Sir Richard Owen in 1842 to describe a few fossil bones of large, extinct “reptiles.” Are there flying dinosaurs? Yes, all modern birds are dinosaurs. The term dinosaur is usually shorthand for ‘non-avian dinosaurs,’ which is the extinct dinos. Marine dinosaurs? No, just marine reptiles. Not all ancient animals, not even all Mesozoic reptiles, are dinosaurs. When did dinosaurs live? 160 my span, from 228-65my . In what regions are their remains found? All continents; mainly in Asia and Western North America. Define a "fossil." Parts of animals that are preserved after their death. How are soft part of animals preserved? Freezing, pickling, mummification, distillation. Hard parts? Original -- apatite is the mineral in bone, permineralization, recrystallization & replacement, casts & molds. Traces? Deposition by a meandering river includes several subenvironments in which animals can be buried. Name them. Point bar, cut bank, oxbow lakes. In what condition would fossils recovered from burial in each most likely be? Be able to name and discuss pre-burial and post-burial biases of the fossil record. What may a bone in a rock mean, in addition to the obvious possibility that the animal lived and died when and where the rock was deposited? Pre-burial--disarticulation, scavenging, weathering, dissolution. Post-burial—dissolution, erosion, non-exposure, non- collecting & preparation damage--Human decisions can bias the record we have to study For what are the following people known? Owen - Coined the term ‘dinosauria’ after finding ancient reptile bones. Steno - Suggested that fossils come from once living organisms. Credited with three of the defining principles of the science of stratigraphy. Hutton - Studies cycles of deposition on the seabed, arguing that many layers can be formed. Gradualism -> uniformitarianism. William Smith - Father of English geology. Observed rock layers, or strata, and found that they
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formed particular patterns. Wegener - Came up with the theory of continental drift. Erasmus Darwin - ? , Cuvier - Pioneer in extinction and catastrophism. Lamarck - Lamarckian Evolution (environment gives rise to changes in animals.) Charles Darwin - Evolution . Alfred Russel Wallace - Believed first in transmutation of species, then current evolution. Mendel - Father of genetics. ‘Inheritance of traits.’ Punnet square. Linneaus - Father of modern taxonomy. What are the basic principles of stratigraphy? The study of layered rocks 1. superposition- in undisturbed strata, oldest at bottom, youngest at top 2. original horizontality 3. original lateral continuity What makes a good index fossil? Lived for a relatively short period in geologic time. How do lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic, time stratigraphic and geologic
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2008 for the course GEOL 1066 taught by Professor Schiebout during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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