SAHRA_HABIB_-_Inca_Empire_Student_Materials_1 - Document A Textbook Account 2018(Excerpted In the late 1300s the Inca were only a small community in

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Unformatted text preview: Document A: Textbook Account, 2018 (Excerpted) In the late 1300s, the Inca were only a small community in the area of Cuzco, a city located at 11,000 feet in the mountains of southern Peru. In the 1440s, however, under the leadership of the ruler Pachacuti, the Inca launched a campaign of conquest that eventually brought the entire region under Inca control. . . . Pachacuti and his immediate successors, Topa Inca Yupanqui and Huayna Capac Inca—Inca means “ruler”—extended the boundaries of the Inca Empire as far as Ecuador, central Chile, and the edge of the Amazon basin. The empire included perhaps 12 million people. The Inca state was built on war. All young men were required to serve in the Inca army. With some 200,000 members, the army was the largest and best armed in the region. . . . After an area was placed under Inca control, the local inhabitants were instructed in the Quechua language. Control of new territories was carefully regulated. A noble of high rank was sent to govern the new region. Local leaders could keep their posts as long as they were loyal to the Inca ruler. To encourage loyalty, the children of local leaders were taken as hostages to the Inca capital, where they were educated in Inca ways before returning home. . . . Forced labor was another important feature of the state. All Inca subjects were responsible for labor service, usually for several weeks each year. Laborers, often with their entire communities, were moved according to need from one part of the country to another to take part in building projects. Source: Spielvogel, Jackson J., and Jay McTighe, 2018. World History and Geography. Vocabulary hostage: a person held captive STANFORD HISTORY EDUCATION GROUP sheg.stanford.edu Document B: Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa, 1572 (Modified) Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa was a Spanish sea captain and royal scientist. The following excerpt is from his book The History of the Incas, completed in 1572. Sarmiento wrote this book in Cusco on orders of the Spanish viceroy of Peru, near the end of the Spanish Conquest of the Inca Empire. The Inca preserved their history through oral histories and quipus. Sarmiento carefully collected the data for his book by interviewing the surviving Inca nobility about their history. He wrote his account to argue that the Inca were not the rightful rulers of the Andes and that instead the Spanish were. THE NATIONS THAT PACHACUTI INCA DESTROYED AND THE TOWNS HE ATTACKED; FIRST, TOCAY CAPAC, THE RULER OF THE AYAMARCAS Near the Cusco Valley is a nation of Indians called Ayarmacas who had a proud and wealthy ruler named Tocay Capac. Neither he nor the Ayarmacas wanted to pay homage to the Inca. Instead, they sought to ready their weapons against the Inca, in case they decided to turn against them. Knowing this, Pachacuti called an assembly of his people and their communities. He combined them into one body so that once together no one could or would fight against them. They decided to join together and leave to conquer all the nations of the kingdom, and those who did not give in to them or serve them of their own free will they would utterly destroy. And they decided that before anything else they should go against Tocay Capac, the ruler of the Ayarmacas, who was powerful and had not come to pay homage to the Inca. And with the warriors thus gathered, they went against the Ayarmacas and their ruler, and they fought each other in Guanancancha. Pachacuti defeated them, and he destroyed the towns and killed almost all of the Ayarmacas. He brought Tocay Capac as a captive to Cusco and kept him in prison until his death. Source: Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa, The History of the Incas, 1572. Vocabulary quipu: knotted strings used to store information viceroy: an official who rules a colony on behalf of a monarch pay homage: show respect to an authority STANFORD HISTORY EDUCATION GROUP sheg.stanford.edu Document C: Felipe Guamán Poma de Ayala, 1615 (Modified) The following are excerpts from Felipe Guamán Poma de Ayala’s book The First New Chronicle and Good Government. Guamán Poma came from a noble Inca family in Peru. He hoped his history of the Incas and of the Spanish conquest would convince the king of Spain to make reforms in Peru. It’s unknown whether his book ever reached the king, but it serves as an invaluable source about life in the Andes. Excerpt 1 is an illustration of the celebrations of the people of the Collasuyo (southern) quarter of the Inca Empire. The Inca held monthly celebrations in each town of their empire, in which food was given to the traveling workers who were fulfilling their mandatory labor tax to the empire. Workers who were especially productive would be recognized for their service. Excerpt 1 STANFORD HISTORY EDUCATION GROUP sheg.stanford.edu Excerpt 2 The tenth Inca, Topa Inca Yupanqui . . . was handsome, tall, very wise, and formal. He was at peace with and friends of the most important leaders. He liked festivals and banquets. He honored the important women. He was a great warrior. He hated liars; anyone who lied he would have killed. He was the one who ordered that all the royal roads and bridges be kept in good repair. He established the chasquis. He ordered that there be royal officials, a sheriff, judges, president, a council of these kingdoms, an imperial official. He had a counselor, a deputy and protector, a secretary, the Inca’s quipu interpreter, accountant, a crime official, and he organized other offices. He spoke with the huacas every year. . . . He started organizing his property and the community property and the food storehouses with much order, accounting and quipu officials throughout the kingdom. Besides what his father took, he conquered half of Huanuco Allauca, Chinchaycocha, Tarma, all the mountain regions of Lima; Huno Huaylla, ten thousand Indians; Conchuco, Cajatambo. Source: Felipe Guamán Poma de Ayala’s book The First New Chronicle and Good Government, 1615. Vocabulary chasquis: running messengers quipu: knotted strings used to store information huaca: a sacred space, mountain, or object in Andean culture STANFORD HISTORY EDUCATION GROUP sheg.stanford.edu about Garcilaso Document D: Garcilaso de la Vega, 1609 (Modified) Garcilaso de la Vega was the son of a noble Inca woman and a Spanish conquistador. He was born in Cusco in 1539, during the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire. He moved to Spain in 1560, when he was twenty-one, and never returned to Peru. The following is excerpted from his book The Royal Commentaries of Peru, which he published in 1609, about thirty-five years after the end of conquest of the Inca Empire. Though there have been learned Spaniards who have written about the republics of the New World, they have not described these kingdoms as fully reasons as they might have done. I have noticed this particularly in things that I have for writing seen written about Peru, about which, as a native of the city of Cusco, which document was formerly the Rome of that empire, I have fuller and more accurate information than that provided by previous writers. For this reason, impelled by my natural love for my native country, I have undertaken the task of writing this book . . . The Inca kings improved the Ica valley, which, like all these coastal valleys, became fertile, by building a very fine canal which brought down a great volume of water from high up in the mountains. In order to do this they very skillfully reversed the flow of the water, which had formerly run eastwards and was now made to flow westwards. Previously the Indians used to suffer greatly from drought in the maize fields, and many years, when it scarcely rained at all in the sierra, they lost their crops for lack of water. But now, with the aid of the canal, they more than doubled the extent of their cultivable land, and from then on lived in great abundance and prosperity. All this caused the conquered and unconquered Indians to desire and love the Inca empire, whose care and attention was, they observed, always devoted to providing such benefits in the valleys. Source: The Royal Commentaries of Peru, Garcilaso de la Vega, 1609. Vocabulary canal: a constructed waterway sierra: a long mountain chain cultivable: able to use for farming STANFORD HISTORY EDUCATION GROUP sheg.stanford.edu Guiding Questions Document A: Textbook, 2018 1. (Close Reading) Circle all of the words that indicate the Inca expanded their empire through force. Underline all the words that indicate the Inca expanded their empire through ways other than force. 2. What is the main way the textbook suggests the Inca expanded their empire? Explain. by controlling new territories to expand their empire. Document B: Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa, 1572 1. (Sourcing) Who was Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa? A Spanish sea captain and royal scientist. Why did he write this document? to argue that the Inca were not the rightful rulers of the Andes and that instead the Spanish were How might his reasons for writing this document have influenced what he wrote? It allowed him to summon influential Incas, especially those who had witnessed the fall of the Empire 2. (Close reading) According to this account, why did Pachacuti decide to attack the Ayarmacas? Pacachuti wanted to conquer all of the kingdom's nations and those who didn't surrender to his will were killed or destroyed 3. (Contextualization) Pachacuti lived from 1418 to 1471 or 1472. Sarmiento wrote this account in 1572. How might this affect the reliability of his account? Explain. It might not be reliable because he could of got false information. 4. (Contextualization) In the mid-1500s some Catholic priests criticized the Spanish government’s treatment of Native Americans. How might that context have influenced Sarmiento’s account? That context might have influenced Sarmiento's account in that he tried to change the version of the Catholic priest 5. (Corroboration) Does this account support or challenge the textbook’s account? Explain. it somewhat supports it, but somethings were changed. STANFORD HISTORY EDUCATION GROUP sheg.stanford.edu Document C: Felipe Guamán Poma de Ayala, 1615 1. (Sourcing) Who was Guamán Poma de Ayala? The First New Chronicle and Good Government. Guamán Poma came from a noble Inca family in Peru. Why did he make this document? He hoped his history of the Incas and of the Spanish conquest would convince the king of Spain to make reforms in Peru. How might his reasons for making this document have influenced his account? It’s unknown whether his book ever reached the king, but it serves as an invaluable source about life in the Andes. 2. (Close reading) Describe what you see in the illustration in Excerpt 1. Excerpt 1 is an illustration of the celebrations of the people Collasuyo (southern) quarter of the Inca Empire. How does this illustration of the Inca state’s required labor system compare to the textbook’s account of the system? The mita system was a system established by the Inca Empire in order to construct buildings or create roads throughout the empire. 3. (Close reading) How does Guamán Poma describe Topa Inca Yupanqui in Excerpt 2? As a handsome, tall, very wise, and formal man. 4. (Contextualization) Topa Inca Yupanqui lived from 1471 to 1493. Guamán Poma wrote this account in 1615. How might this affect the reliability of his account? It might not be too reliable so I wouldn't trust it too much. 5. (Corroboration) Does this account support or challenge the textbook’s account? Explain. It somewhat supports it somethings we're changed. Document D: Garcilaso de la Vega, 1609 1. (Sourcing) Who was Garcilaso de la Vega? son of a noble Inca woman and a Spanish conquistador. He was born in Cusco in 1539, during the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire. Why did he write this document? For his natural love for his native country, I have undertaken the task of writing this book. How might his reasons for writing this document have influenced what he wrote? He has fully accurate information so that is why he wrote this. STANFORD HISTORY EDUCATION GROUP sheg.stanford.edu 2. (Close Reading) Circle all of the words that indicate the Inca expanded their empire through force. Underline all the words that indicate the Inca expanded their empire through ways other than force. 3. (Contextualization) The Inca expanded their empire mostly during the 15th century. De la Vega wrote this account in 1609. How might this affect the reliability of his account? It might not be too reliable but it's closer than the other documents so this could be more reliable than those other texts. 4. (Corroboration) Does this account support or challenge the textbook’s account? Explain. It supports it giving details and examples of how the Inca empire expanded and improved. New Textbook Passage: How the Inca Expand Their Empire Write two paragraphs for a history textbook explaining how the Inca expanded their empire, using evidence from at least two of the historical documents (Documents B-D). They had a system they used each time they conquered another tribe. First, roads were built to connect the new territory to the rest of the empire. For example, "combined them into one body so that once together no one could or would fight against them. They decided to join together and leave to conquer all the nations of the kingdom, and those who did not give in to them or serve them of their own free will they would utterly destroy." This shows how they conquered different tribes in order to expand their empire. Another example is, "All this caused the conquered and unconquered Indians to desire and love the Inca empire, whose care and attention was, they observed, always devoted to providing such benefits in the valleys." this shows how they were forced to join the empire and to 'love' it. This shows how the Inca expanded their empire. STANFORD HISTORY EDUCATION GROUP sheg.stanford.edu ...
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