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Self-ReflectionNameInstitutional AffiliationQuestion OneTwo Kinds of Learning Personally ExperiencedAlthough most psychologists often agree that learning entails a relatively permanentmodification of behavior due to experience (Phillipson & Lam, 2011), there are variousdefinitions of learning. There are three essential kinds of learning described in behavioralpsychology. These include observational learning, classical conditioning, and operantconditioning. Personally, the two kinds of learning I have experienced are classical conditioningand operant conditioning.Classical ConditioningClassical conditioning involves learning through the association of events or stimuli thatfrequently occur together. People learn by forming associations between stimuli occurringnaturally and some previously neutral stimuli (Ha-ting, 2004). As a result, individuals learn toanticipate events. Besides, the neutral stimulus should take place instantly before the naturallyarising stimulus. Classical conditioning focuses on automatic, naturally occurring behaviors.People experience the process of classical conditioning daily (Phillipson & Lam, 2011). Forexample, I associate lightning with thunder, and I always jump whenever I see lightning. Thevery first time I heard a thunderstorm, I jumped. The thunder's sound naturally occurred, whichmade me jump.At first, lightning alone could not make me jump. After encountering this for several days, Irealized that lightning, initially a neutral stimulus, occurs before thunder (unconditionedstimulus). Over time, seeing lighting (conditioned response) makes me jump (conditionedresponse) because I expect thunder to follow (Ha-ting, 2004). Another example of classicalconditioning is how I associate stairs with anxiety. One day I stumbled on a set of stairs andcrashed towards the floor while running for class. I reached out to break the fall and felt acrackling sensation as my leg hit the ground. For weeks, I had to nurse an enormous scrape onmy leg, although it did not heal completely. Initially, I did not feel anxious when I saw stairsbefore the accident. Therefore, stairs' sight became a conditioned stimulus and anxiety aconditioned response, while the first stumble and hurt represent an unconditioned stimulus andresponse correspondingly.Operant ConditioningOperant conditioning involves a learning process in which the likelihood of a response increasesor decreases due to reinforcement or punishment (Peng & Yan, 2019). Frederic Skinner, theoriginator of operant conditioning, suggests that the consequences of an individual's actionsshape their voluntary behavior. Skinner's four mechanisms based the operant conditioningapproach include positive reinforcement or reward, negative reinforcement, extinction, and

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Term
Summer
Professor
Otieno Geoffrey

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