Exam 1 Study Notes

Exam 1 Study Notes - Exam 1 Study Notes: 1, 23, 24, 25...

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Potential for rapid reproduction Variability in structure and behavior Competition for survival and reproduction ural Selection average, fittest individuals have most offspring Some variability is inheritable pulation changes through time, driven by natural selection Exam 1 Study Notes: 1, 23, 24, 25 Early Theories of Biodiversity: The world of Biblical times: An unmoving earth with a “firmament” (transparent dome) with stars separating waters above from waters below—at the center of the universe. Creation stories of Genesis (Earth created in seven days) 1654: James Ussher calculates the Earth as Biblically recorded, to be 6000 years old 1700: Science was a natural theology: the study of nature to know God’s mind -God’s plan is perfect: Scala Naturae (Great Chain of Being in which each category possesses all of the qualities of the subordinate ones—tried to fill discrepancies with mythical beings) -God’s plan is permanent and unchanging -God’s plan extends through social relations, hence racism, classicism, etc. is natural and good 1500-1800: Age of Discovery -Galileo finds evidence in support of Copernican heliocentric solar system -World exploration failed to fill gaps in Scala Naturae, casting doubt on model of diversity -Linnaeus declares ark story impossible -Fossils identified as remains of organisms, provides evidence for idea of extinction, implying that God’s creatures are not perfect after all. Observations inconsistent with theory that species were formed instantaneously, recently, and have not changed through time: -geographic proximity o f closely related species like Galapagos mockingbirds -support for theory of plate tectonics: supports idea that Earth has changed… Leads one to believe that organisms have changed as well -existence of structural, development, and genetic homologies
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Structural homologies : similar morphological traits (ex: limbs of vertebrates) Developmental homologies : similar trait found in developing embryos of different species (at root of structural homologies) Genetic homologies : similarity in DNA sequences of different species (at root of structural and developmental homologies) BUT it is important to discern between: Analogous traits : similar traits that did not exist in a common ancestor Convergent evolution occurs when natural selection favors similar solutions to the problems posed by a similar way of making a living. Homologous traits : similarities that exist because of a common ancestor -near-universality of genetic code -resemblances of modern to fossil forms 19 th Century: researchers found transitional forms (fossil species with traits intermediate between those of older & younger species) that supported their “law of succession” -extinction - vestigial traits : reduced or incompletely developed structures that have no function or reduced function, that are similar to functioning structures in other species (ex: appendix) Uniformitarianism is the idea that the laws of the universe are constant through time
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Exam 1 Study Notes - Exam 1 Study Notes: 1, 23, 24, 25...

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