NAS_01_F07_Midterm_Study_Guide - NAS 01 Fall 2007 Professor...

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NAS 01, Fall 2007 Professor Crum T.A. Ashley Hall Lecture Notes I. Labels A. “Indian”—over 500 years old, started when Christopher Columbus got to the Island that would later be named San Salvador and applied the misnomer ‘Indians’ to the Natives. B. In 1960’s, indigenous people’s of the Americas (i.e., the so-called ‘Indians’), came up with the term “Native American” to replace “Indian”. C. However, the term ‘Native American’ had been used back in 1854 as the name of a national 3 rd political party, the “Native American Party”, which was composed of old-stock immigrants (mostly English). This was a reaction to the influx of Irish immigrants. Not unlike the indigenous people the Americas, the Irish had been referred to as ‘savages’. D. So, around 1970’s, Indians were “going back to the drawing board to come up with new names.” These included: 1. “First Americans” (around 1980) 2. “People” (since, after all, man tribal names like Miwok or Choctaw mean simply “the people” or “the red people”). 3. “First Nations” (a term used primarily in Canada) 4. “Fourth World” (coined in 1975 by Native people to capture the sense that they are distinct peoples—nations within nations— who are culturally and linguistically distinct from the mainstream’). 5. “Indigenous” (the 1992 quincentennial of Columbus’ ‘discovery’ of the Americas sparked reaction among the Native people of the Western Hemisphere, who began using the common term ‘indigenous’). II. Who or what is a Native American? A. BIA was created in 1824, but in order to ‘serve’ Native Americans, they had to determine who is, and who isn’t Native. The BIA came up with three criteria, which it used until the 1980’s: 1. Tribal Enrollment or Tribal Citizenship 2. Minimum Blood Quantum (originally, it was ¼) 3. Residence on, or near an Indian reservation
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The BIA has “softened up” on the 2 nd and 3 rd criteria since the 1980’s, partly due to a 1986 Supreme Court decision (Zarr v. BIA) in favor of a Native American (Pomo) woman who filed suit against the BIA after they refused to recognize her as Native American. She was 1/8 Native. B. Adopted Native American (i.e., euroamericans adopted by tribes) 1. Bing Crosby—the singer adopted by Professor Crum’s Shoshone people in return for his help in feeding and sheltering their cattle on his ranch in a 1950 blizzard. 2. Walter Mondale—the former presidential candidate adopted in the 1980’s by Chippewa from Minnesota who hoped he would represent them if he won the presidency. C.
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NAS_01_F07_Midterm_Study_Guide - NAS 01 Fall 2007 Professor...

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