Chem_Sheet_2

Chem_Sheet_2 - K Ca Na Mg Al Cr Zn Fe Cd Ni Sn Pb H2 Cu Ag...

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Solubility Guidelines: Almost all nitrates, acetates, perchlorates, group 1A metal salts, and ammonium salts are SOLUABLE Most chlorides, bromides, and iodides are SOLUBLE. Except: those of Pb 2+ , Ag + , and Hg 2 2+ Most sulfates are SOLUBLE. Except: those of Sr 2+ , Ba 2+ , Pb 2+ , and Hg 2 2+ All chlorates are SOLUBLE Most carbonates, hydroxides, phosphates, and sulfides are INSOLUBLE . Except: aluminum and group 1A metal salts of any of those anions are soluble; hydroxides and sulfides of Ca 2+ , Sr 2+ , and Ba 2+ are slightly to moderately soluble Oxidation Numbers: 1) Zero for uncombined elements 2) Charge on monatomic ion 3) F is always -1, other halogens -1 except when combined with more electonegative halogen or oxygen 4) Group 1A metals are +1 5) H is +1 except in metal hydrides where it is -1 6) O is -2, except when combined with F, then +1 or +2, or in peroxides -1 7) Sum of oxidation state equals charge on ion or molecule Oxidation: loss of electrons. Oxidizing agent accepts electron Reduction: gain in electrons. Reducing agent donates electrons Density of mercury = 13.6 g/cm 3 Neutralization occurs when the number of ions in the acid equals the number of ions in the base Boyle’s Law : C = PV P initial X V initial = P final X V final Charles’ Law : V/T = C V initial / T initial = V final / T final Avogadro’s Law : V/n = C 1 mol gas = 22.4 L gas (at STP) STP: 273.15 K (0 o C) and 760 Torr Combined Gas Law: PV/nT P 1 V 1 / n 1 T 1 = P 2 V 2 / n 2 T 2 Ideal Gas Law: PV = nRT Gases act like ideal gasses at low pressure and high temperature Mass in grams (m) = number of moles (n) X molar mass (M) M = m/n mRT = MPV d = MP/RT Gay Lussac’s law of combining volumes : The volume of gaseous reactants and products are in small whole number ratios when they are measured at the same temperature and pressure Dalton’s law of partial pressures : The total pressure exerted is equal to the sum of the partial pressures exerted by each gas P total = P 1 + P 2 +… P 1 / P total = P 1 / P
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Chem_Sheet_2 - K Ca Na Mg Al Cr Zn Fe Cd Ni Sn Pb H2 Cu Ag...

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