Chem_Sheet_2_2

Chem_Sheet_2_2 - Spontaneous: G is negative Non...

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Spontaneous : ΔG is negative Non spontaneous : ΔG is positive At equilibrium: ΔG = 0 Entropy (S) : thermodynamic property related to the way in which the energy of a system is distributed among the available energy levels. The greater the number of configurations of the microscopic particles among the energy levels in a system, the greater the entropy of the system ΔS = q rev / T (q = heat) ΔS o = entropy of one mole of a substance in its standard state (25 o C or 298.15 K) ΔS = Σv p S o (products) - Σv p S o (reactants) works with ΔG and ΔH as well G = H – TS ΔG = ΔH - T ΔS ΔG = ΔG o + RT lnQ ΔG o = -RT lnK eq ΔG = RT ln(Q/K eq ) R = 8.3145 J/mol K ΔS o vapn = ΔH o vapn / T bp ln (K 2 / K 1 ) = (ΔH o / R)(1 / T 1 – 1 / T 2 ) can be used with partial pressures and moles Exothermic- heat is a product (ΔH is negative) Endothermic- heat is a reactant (ΔH is positive) aA + bB… cC + dD Rate = Rate = k[A] m [B] n units of k = M (1-overall order) S -1 [Reaction], int Initial Rate Reaction Order doubles first quadruples second Increases eightfold third unchanged zero If Q < K c : a net change occurs in the forward direction If Q > K c : a net change occurs in the reverse direction Le Chatelier’s Principle : When any change in concentration, temperature, pressure, or volume is imposed on a system at equilibrium, the system responds by attaining a new equilibrium condition that minimizes the impact of the imposed change
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2008 for the course CHEM 11b taught by Professor Petsko during the Spring '07 term at Brandeis.

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Chem_Sheet_2_2 - Spontaneous: G is negative Non...

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