chapt41_lecture Revised

chapt41_lecture Revised - CHAPTER 41 NUTRITION, DIGESTION,...

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1 CHAPTER 41 NUTRITION, DIGESTION, AND ABSORPTION
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2 Nutrient – any substance consumed by an animal that is needed for survival, growth, development, tissue repair, or reproduction Nutrients may need to be digested Absorption – small molecules transported from digestive cavity to animal’s circulatory system Nutrients may be used to make ATP , as building blocks, or as cofactors
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3 Animals require 5 categories of organic nutrients Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids Nucleic acids Vitamins Inorganic nutrients Ca 2+ , K + , Fe 3+
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4
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5 Basic similarities in animal cells lead to basic similarities in nutrition However, different animal physiologies can have different nutritional demands Herbivores – eat only plants Carnivores – consume animal flesh or fluids Omnivores – eat both plant and animal material
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6 Animals may consume monomers, polymers, or both Polymers must be broken down into monomers to exit the digestive tract and be transported in blood
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7 Essential nutrients Certain compounds cannot be synthesized from any ingested or stored precursor molecule 4 groups Essential amino acids Essential fatty acids Minerals Vitamins
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8 Essential amino acids 8 required by many animals Isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine Cannot be synthesized by animal’s cells Are not stored Carnivores and omnivores readily obtain all 8 in meat Most plants do not contain every essential amino acid in sufficient quantity
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9 Essential fatty acids Certain polyunsaturated fatty acids that cannot be synthesized by animal cells Linoleic acid is a vital precursor to arachidonic acid Unsaturated fatty acids found primarily in plants Strict carnivores obtain them from fish or adipose tissue of birds and mammals
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10 Minerals Inorganic ions Many required in only trace amounts Less than 1 mg/day Some minerals can be stored (calcium) Not all minerals used at the same rate or in the same way Copper vs. iron for oxygen transport
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11 Vitamins Important organic nutrients that serve as coenzymes Fat-soluble vitamins vitamin A stored in adipose tissue Water-soluble vitamins – vitamin C – not stored Not all animals require the same vitamins Only primates and guinea pigs can’t synthesize vitamin C Scurvy – vitamin C deficiency
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12 Major ways animals obtain foods All animals are heterotrophs 3 dietary categories Herbivore, carnivore, omnivore
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13 Strategies for obtaining food Trapping food that floats or swims using sticky surface or tentacles Suspension feeders filter organic material from the water Molluscs and balleen whales Carnivores kill live prey or scavenge remains of dead animals
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14 Suspension feeders filter organic material from the water Molluscs and balleen whales
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15 Grazers
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chapt41_lecture Revised - CHAPTER 41 NUTRITION, DIGESTION,...

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