4-17 - In what ways did the industrial Revolution alter the...

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In what ways did the industrial Revolution alter the lives of Europeans? To what degree was the Industrial Revolution revolutionary?
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I. What was the Industrial Revolution A. Pre-industrial Europe 1. Subsistence economy 2. Agrarian 3. Static—wasn’t very much change; things didn’t happen very fast. The industrial revolution changes all that, leads to mass consumerism B. Agricultural Revolution C. Population Growth, Thomas Malthus—believed the population would outrun food supply and that Europe would be unable to feed its people and population growth would drop off in the mid-19 th century. Did not predict the changes brought about by the industrial economy D. Transition from agrarian to industrial economy 1. Mechanical devices replace human skills—weavers overtaken by looms, etc. 2. Transition from animal power to inanimate power—coal and steam 3. Discovery of new raw materials—pre-industrial revolution, some of the most important raw materials were grain, wood, and stone. Post-industrial revolution, coal, steel, and glass were more important in production. Steel palace: made in 1851 of 1900 tons of glass II. Preconditions for the Industrial Revolution; Why does it begin in Britain? (the spread to continental Europe is slow, but eventual) A. Agricultural Revolution—change in agricultural practices, were most sustained and most successful in Great Britain. (new plants, new techniques) 1. Greater profits for investment in new industry—planters began to make greater profits as the yields from their harvest increased. Land owners and elites have money, they invest in things like steam engines, railroads, and other new technologies. 2. Surplus labor—because agriculture became more efficient, fewer people were needed to work on the farms. These people were free to do other things, such as work in textile mills or what was called “cottage industry.”
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3. Lower percentage of wealth required for food—the price of food overall was falling and people were using a lower percentage of their wealth on food. Even people in
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2008 for the course HIST 4C taught by Professor Dawson during the Spring '07 term at UCSB.

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4-17 - In what ways did the industrial Revolution alter the...

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