Chapter18McKayoutline - Chapter18:TowardaNewWorldView Use...

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Chapter 18: Toward a New World ViewUse this outline to preview the chapter before you read a particular section and then as a selfcheck to test yourreading comprehension after you have read the chapter section.I.The scientific revolutionA.The scientific revolution of the seventeenth century was the major cause of the change inworldview and one of the key developments in the evolution of Western society.1.Only the West developed modern science; historians disagree as to how important to itsrise were the nonscientific economic, religious, and social factors.B.Scientific thought in the early 1500s1.European ideas about the universe were based on Aristotelian medieval ideas.a.Central to this view was the belief in a motionless earth fixed at the center of theuniverse.b.Around the earth moved ten crystal spheres, and beyond the spheres washeaven.2.Aristotle's scheme suited Christianity because it positioned human beings at the center ofthe universe and established a home for God.3.Science in this period was primarily a branch of theology.C.The Copernican hypothesis1.Copernicus, a Polish clergyman and astronomer, claimed that the earth revolved aroundthe sun and that the sun was the center of the universe.2.This heliocentric theory was a departure from medieval thought and created doubts abouttraditional Christianity.D.From Brahe to Galileo1.Brahe set the stage for the modern study of astronomy by building an observatory andcollecting data.2.His assistant, Kepler, formulated three laws of planetary motion that proved the preciserelationships among planets in a sun centered universe.3.Galileo discovered the laws of motion using the experimental method--the cornerstone ofmodern science.a.He also applied the experimental method to astronomy, using the newly inventedtelescope.b.Galileo was tried by the Inquisition for heresy in 1633 and forced to recant hisviews.E.Newton's synthesis1.In his famous book,Principia(1687), Newton integrated the astronomy of Copernicus andKepler with the physics of Galileo.a.He formulated a set of mathematical laws to explain motion and mechanics.b.The key feature in his synthesis was the law of universal gravitation.2.Henceforth, the universe could be explained through mathematics.F.Causes of the scientific revolution1.The scientific revolution was the product of individual genius--such as Newton building onthe works of Copernicus and others.

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