Ch. 7 Outline Teacher - Chapter7 I A TheAchaemenidEmpire...

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Nature of Mathematics
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Chapter 4 / Exercise 3
Nature of Mathematics
Smith
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Chapter 7I.The rise and fall of the Persian Empires A.The Achaemenid Empire 1.Medes and Persians migrated from central Asia to Persia before 1000 B.C.E. a.Indo-European speakers, sharing cultural traits with Aryans b.Challenged the Assyrian and Babylonian empires 2.Cyrus the Achaemenid (the Shepherd) (reigned 558-530 B.C.E.)  a.Became king of Persian tribes in 558 B.C.E. b.All of Iran under his control by 548 B.C.E. c.Established a vast empire from India to borders of Egypt 3.Cyrus's son, Cambyses (reigned 530-522 B.C.E.), conquered Egypt in 525 4.Darius (reigned 521-486 B.C.E.); largest extent of empire; population thirty-five million  5.Achaemenid administration a.Twenty-three satrapies (Persian governors), appointed by central government b.Local officials were from local population c.Satraps' power was checked by military officers and "imperial spies" d.Replaced irregular tribute payments with formal taxes e.Standardization of coins and laws Modern Day IranNot the biggest, not the best, but the father of the Persian EmpireBorrows from Lydia (Anatolia) currencyGreatest of all Persian rulers. Size, Organization, & WealthTolerance of cultural beliefs & laws, but had them codified“eyes & ears of the king”Consistent & fair formal taxes in grain, silver, horses, slaves Infrastructure
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Nature of Mathematics
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Chapter 4 / Exercise 3
Nature of Mathematics
Smith
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f.Communication systems: Persian Royal Road and postal stationsB.Decline and fall of the Achaemenid Empire 1.Commonwealth: law, justice, administration led to political stability and public works 2.Xerxes (reigned 486-465 B.C.E.) a.Retreated from the policy of cultural toleration b.

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