Chapter 04

Chapter 04 - Chapter 4 Linear algebra in Matlab...

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Chapter 4 Linear algebra in Matlab Mathematical problems involving equations of the form Ax=b, where A is a matrix and x and b are both column vectors are problems in linear algebra , sometimes also called matrix algebra . Engineering and scientific and disciplines are rife with such problems. Thus, an understanding of their set-up and solution is a crucial part of the education of many engineers and scientists. As we will see in this brief introduction, Matlab provides a powerful and convenient means for finding solutions these problems, but, as we will also see, the solution is not always what it appears to be. 4.1 Solution difficulties The most common problems of importance are those in which the unknowns are the elements of x or the elements of b . The latter problems are the simpler ones. The former are fraught with many difficulties. In some cases, the “solution” x may in fact not be a solution at all! This situation obtains when there is conflicting information hidden in the inputs (i.e., A and b ), and the non-solution obtained is a necessary compromise among them. That compromise solution may be a perfectly acceptable approximation, even though it is not in fact a solution to the equations. In other cases Matlab’s result may be a solution, but, because of small errors in A or b , it may be completely different from the exact solution that would be obtained were A and b exact. This situation can have a serious impact on the application at hand. The elements of A and b are typically measurements made in the field, and even though much time, effort, and expense goes into reducing the error of those measurements, the calculated x may have an error that is so large as to render those measurements useless. This situation occurs when the solution x is highly sensitive to small changes in A and b , and it is just as important, or in many cases more important, than the problem of the approximate non-solution. Neither of these problems is Matlab’s “fault”, nor would it be the fault of any other automatic solver that you might employ. It is the nature of linear algebra. The person who relies on a solution to Ax = b provided by Matlab, or by any other solver, without investigating the sensitivity of the solution to errors in the input, is asking for trouble, and will often get it. When accuracy is critical (and it usually is), the reliability of the solution must be investigated, and that investigation requires some understanding of linear algebra. The study of linear algebra can be life-long, and there are many books and courses, both undergraduate and graduate, on the subject. While it is not possible for every engineer and scientist to master the subject, it is possible for him or her to be aware of the nature of the difficulties and to learn how to recognize them in his or her discipline. The goals of this chapter are to give you some insight into the nature of the difficulties

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Chapter 04 - Chapter 4 Linear algebra in Matlab...

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