Week 1 Review Sheet answers

Week 1 Review Sheet answers - Final Review Sheet Week 1...

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Final Review Sheet – Week 1 Lecture 1 - 1/7/08 All lectures are posted on Blackboard. By the night before the class, I will post a version of the lecture that will be most of what is covered (without the questions). The first lecture’s main points: Basic properties of cells are the basic properties of living things Different classes of cells: prokaryotes and eukaryotes. These share some features, are different in others “Typical” eukaryotic cells have a number of organelles. Plants and animals share many. You should review the different organelles and their general roles. Mentioned in lecture were group of bacteria with membrane around the nucleoid and “organelles”. The point here is to keep an open mind and be ready to accept new information if the evidence is good, even if it challenges long held beliefs. “Prokaryotes” include true bacteria and archaea. Archaea are described as “extremophiles” Experimental evidence that archaea are a separate domain includes analysis of ribosomal DNA. Grouping of similar organisms fell into three groups, bacteria, archaea, eukaryota, rather than two Sample Questions: 1. List similarities and differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes (here I mean the standard ones, not exceptions). Similarities: both have DNA, both have plasma membranes (phospholipids bilayers), both carry out DNA, RNA and protein synthesis similarly, similar in metabolic reactions. Differences: all eukaryotes two layered nuclear envelope containing genetic material. Almost all prokaryotes have no internal membrane systems (recent discoveries of a few prevent us from being absolute here). All eukaryotes have complex chromosomes, with DNA associated with histones and other proteins. Prokaryotic DNA is in nucleoid bodies, very little protein. Eukaryotes have complex organelles to carry out specific functions. Flagella differ in these different groups. Eukaryotes have three different RNA synthesizing enzymes, while prokaryotes have one. Because of the nuclear envelope, RNA synthesis and protein synthesis are separated in eukaryotes, while they are not in prokaryotes.
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Final Review Sheet – Week 1 2. List the major organelles in a plant cell. What is the function of each? Which ones are not found in animal cells? Nucleus – information storage Chloroplast – photosynthesis – not in animal cells Mitochondria – oxidative metabolism of nutrients Rough endoplasmic reticulum – synthesis of subclass of proteins (integral membrane, those for secretion) Smooth ER – produces and breaks down fats Vacuole – some digestion of materials – similar in some functions to lysosomes- but unique to plant cells Golgi apparatus – package proteins and carbohydrates for secretion Peroxisome – oxidation of some compounds to produce peroxides, breakdown of peroxides 3. What are the smallest organelles visible in the light microscope? Look at the chart on page20 (answer is mitochondrion).
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Week 1 Review Sheet answers - Final Review Sheet Week 1...

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