Chapter 5 Baltzan

Chapter 5 Baltzan - IT Architectures Chapter 5 Hardware and...

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IT Architectures Chapter 5
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Hardware and Software Section 5.1
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Introduction Information technology (IT) - any computer- based tool that people use to work with information and support the information and information-processing needs of an organization Hardware - consists of the physical devices associated with a computer system Software - the set of instructions that the hardware executes to carry out specific tasks
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Hardware Basics Computer - an electronic device operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory that can accept, manipulate, and store data Hardware components include: Central processing unit (CPU) Primary storage Secondary storage Input device Output device Communication device
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Hardware Basics
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Central Processing Unit Central processing unit (CPU) - interprets and executes the program (software) instructions and coordinates how all the other hardware devices work together Control unit - interprets software instructions and literally tells the other hardware devices what to do, based on the software instructions Arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) - performs all arithmetic operations (for example, addition and subtraction) and all logic operations (such as sorting and comparing numbers)
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Central Processing Unit The number of CPU cycles per second determines the speed of a CPU Megahertz (MHz) - the number of millions of CPU cycles per second Gigahertz (GHz) - the number of billions of CPU cycles per second
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Central Processing Unit CPU speed factors Clock speed Word length Bus width Chip line width Binary digit (bit) - the smallest unit of information that a computer can process Byte - a group of eight bits representing one natural language character
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Advances in CPU Design Complex instruction set computer (CISC) chip - type of CPU that can recognize as many as 100 or more instructions, enough to carry out most computations directly Reduced instruction set computer (RISC) chip - limit the number of instructions the CPU can execute to increase processing speed Virtualization - a protected memory space created by the CPU allowing the computer to create virtual machines Multiple cores
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2008 for the course MIS 3305 taught by Professor Trower during the Spring '08 term at Baylor.

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Chapter 5 Baltzan - IT Architectures Chapter 5 Hardware and...

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