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Review for Final Exam

Review for Final Exam - 10 Philosophers on Final Exam...

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10 Philosophers on Final Exam Mill-util. I. A. What is the “greatest happiness principle”? Greatest happiness to greatest number of people What does Mill mean by “happiness”? “unhappiness”? Pleasure, pain What are the only things desirable in themselves? Happiness as an end Why does the doctrine that pleasure is the highest goal not degrade human beings to the level of animals? Because there are different levels of pleasure What is Mill’s criterion for determining which of the 2 pleasures has the higher quality? We wouldn’t be able to enjoy our lower as much without higher What kinds of pleasure bring a superior kind of happiness to human life? Moral pleasures Why is it better to be a Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied? Because the fool strives for less, and doesn’t know both sides Socrates knows both sides, and would choose the fool if he wanted When trying to maximize pleasure, which sentient beings should we take into consideration? All sentient beings B. Why is utilitarianism not a selfish doctrine? Because it accounts for all peoples’ happiness How does the moral teaching of Jesus exemplify utilitarianism? To treat others how you would like to be treated is the essence of utilitarianism- “Golden Rule” What is Mill’s response to the objection that util. sets too high a standard by requiring that our motive always be the greatest happiness of society? The motive of an action isn’t the basis of its morality, yet it reveals the moral worth of an action Why is it incorrect to say that utilitarianism is a godless doctrine? Because happiness is God’s end for humans Why is it false to say that a utilitarian has insufficient time to calculate the effects of proposed actions on the general happiness? Because the whole history of humanity has made calculations for us- all moral decisions have already been evaluated II. A. What is the only way to prove that something is desirable? The only proof that something is visible is that it is seen. And the only proof that something is desirable is that it is desired. Why is the general happiness desirable? Each person's happiness is a good to that person, and the general happiness, therefore, a good to the aggregate of all persons. Why is the good of all persons a good to each individual person? Because each person knows what is happy for him, so it is added B. How is it possible to desire things other than happiness in themselves,
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when happiness is the only thing desirable in itself? Because happiness is an end to a lot of desires What sources of evidence can establish what things we desire for themselves? ???????????? What does it mean to think of an object as desirable? It means to think of it as pleasant by definition Nietzsche I. Why is aristocratic society the basis of every enhancement of the type “man”?
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