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Review for the Third Midterm Exam-micrbiology

Review for the Third Midterm Exam-micrbiology - Review for...

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Review for the Third Midterm Exam 1. Know your terms 2. What are the components of the immune system? a. What are the two arms of immunity? How do they differ? Innate - always on, first barriers, skin mucous membranes react in 0-12 hours, normal flora, enzymes, and iron proteins Humoral - clump around the bacteria or virus Cellular - cytotoxic cells and helper t-cells Adaptive - B- cells, T-cells, waits a few days before reacting b. What are the cellular components of the immune system? What are their jobs? Erythrocytes - carry oxygen in the blood Platelets - fragments of large cells Leukocytes - white blood cells divided into granulocytes, monocyte, lymphocyte Granulocyte Eosinophils - allergic reaction, defense against parasitic worms; granulocyte Basophil - inflammation reactions release of histone; granulocyte Neutrophil - also called PMN’s phagocytosis; granulocyte Polymorphonuclear - neutrophilic leukocyte Monocyte - circulates; differentiates in tissue to macrophage and dendiritic cells; phagocytize Macrophage - phagocytize and digest engulfed materials Dendritic cell - gather antigen and present to lymphocytes Lymphocyte - large nucleus, little cytoplasm, participate in adaptive immune response 3. What are the signs of an immune response (e.g. what are the signs of inflammation)? Swelling - tumor Redness - rubor Heat - calor Pain - dolor 4. What is the innate immune response? Defenses that involve anatomical barriers a. What are the components of this response? Lysosome - breaks peptidogylcans- present is sweat tears and saliva Defensisns - create holes in bacterial membranes b. What characterizes an innate response? Physical barriers - skin mucosal barriers, normal flora Enzymes and other proteins-
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Lysozyme - breaks peptidoglycan, present in tears and saliva Peroxidase - produces reactive oxygen species Defensins - creates pores in bacterial membranes Systemic Response - fever inflammation Phagocytosis - chemotaxis(recruited to site of infection), recognition, engulfment, destruction, exocytosis of bacterial debris Complement- protein cascade, results in inflammation which leads to cell lysis, forms sports and opsonization c. What are the systemic responses associated with innate immunity? Fever - accelerates body defenses, elevates temperature above optimal growth of pathogens Inflammation - dialation of blood vessels, recruitment and migration of leukocytes into trauma area d. Are these responses always good for us? If not, when are they detrimental?
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