[BIO 1306] Ch14_Lecture

[BIO 1306] Ch14_Lecture - 14 The Eukaryotic Genome and Its...

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Unformatted text preview: 14 The Eukaryotic Genome and Its Expression 14 The Eukaryotic Genome and Its Expression 14.1 What Are the Characteristics of the Eukaryotic Genome? 14.2 What Are the Characteristics of Eukaryotic Genes? 14.3 How Are Eukaryotic Gene Transcripts Processed? 14.4 How Is Eukaryotic Gene Transcription Regulated? 14.5 How Is Eukaryotic Gene Expression Regulated After Transcription? 14.6 How Is Gene Expression Controlled During and After Translation? 14.1 What Are the Characteristics of the Eukaryotic Genome? Key differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes: Eukaryotic genomes are larger. Eukaryotic genomes have more regulatory sequences. Much of eukaryotic DNA is noncoding. 14.1 What Are the Characteristics of the Eukaryotic Genome? Eukaryotes have multiple chromosomes. In eukaryotes, translation and transcription are physically separated which allows many points of regulation before translation begins. Figure 14.1 Eukaryotic mRNA is Transcribed in the Nucleus but Translated in the Cytoplasm Table 14.1 14.1 What Are the Characteristics of the Eukaryotic Genome? Eukaryote model organisms: Yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Nematode (roundworm), Caenorhabditis elegans Fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster Thale cress, Arabidopsis thaliana 14.1 What Are the Characteristics of the Eukaryotic Genome? The yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) has 16 chromosomes; haploid content of 12 million base pairs (bp). Compartmentalization into organelles requires more genes than prokaryotes have. Table 14.2 14.1 What Are the Characteristics of the Eukaryotic Genome? Some eukaryotic genes that have no homologs in prokaryotes: Genes encoding histones Genes encoding cyclin-dependent kinases that control cell division Genes encoding proteins involved in processing of mRNA 14.1 What Are the Characteristics of the Eukaryotic Genome? The soil nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans , is only 1 mm long. A model organism to study development: the body is transparent, an adult has about 1,000 cells The genome is eight times larger than yeasts. Table 14.3 14.1 What Are the Characteristics of the Eukaryotic Genome? Drosophila melanogaster has been used extensively in genetic studies. Genome is larger than C. elegans , but has fewer genes The genome codes for more proteins than it has genes. Figure 14.2 Functions of the Eukaryotic Genome 14.1 What Are the Characteristics of the Eukaryotic Genome? Arabidopsis thaliana is in the mustard family. Has some genes that have homologs in C. elegans and Drosophila Also has genes that distinguish it as a plant, such as genes for photosynthesis. Table 14.4 14.1 What Are the Characteristics of the Eukaryotic Genome?...
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[BIO 1306] Ch14_Lecture - 14 The Eukaryotic Genome and Its...

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