[BIO 1306] Ch19_Lecture

[BIO 1306] Ch19_Lecture - 19 Differential Gene Expression...

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19 Differential Gene Expression in Development
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19 Differential Gene Expression in Development 19.1 What Are the Processes of Development? 19.2 Is Cell Differentiation Irreversible? 19.3 What Is the Role of Gene Expression in Cell Differentiation? 19.4 How Is Cell Fate Determined? 19.5 How Does Gene Expression Determine Pattern Formation?
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19.1 What Are the Processes of Development? Development : the process in which a multicellular organism undergoes a series of progressive changes that characterizes its life cycle. In its earliest stages, a plant or animal is called an embryo. The embryo can be protected in a seed, an egg shell, or a uterus.
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Figure 19.1 From Fertilized Egg to Adult (Part 1)
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Figure 19.1 From Fertilized Egg to Adult (Part 2)
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19.1 What Are the Processes of Development? Four processes of development: Determination sets the fate of the cell. Differentiation is the process by which different types of cells arise. Morphogenesis shapes differentiated cells into organs, etc. Growth is an increase in body size by cell division and cell expansion.
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19.1 What Are the Processes of Development? Cells in a multicellular organisms are genetically identical; they differ from one another because of differential gene expression. In early embryos, every cell has potential to develop in many different ways.
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19.1 What Are the Processes of Development? Morphogenesis in plant cells results from organized division and expansion of cells. In animals, cell movements are important in morphogenesis. Apoptosis (programmed cell death) is also important in orderly development.
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19.1 What Are the Processes of Development? A cell’s fate , the type of cell it will ultimately become, is a function of differential gene expression and morphogenesis. Experiments in which specific cells of an early embryo are grafted to new positions on another embryo show the role of morphogenesis.
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Figure 19.2 Developmental Potential in Early Frog Embryos (Part 1)
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Figure 19.2 Developmental Potential in Early Frog Embryos (Part 2)
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19.1 What Are the Processes of Development? Early embryonic cells have a range of possible fates, but possibilities become more restricted as development proceeds. The extracellular environment, as well as the cell contents, influence the genome and differentiation.
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19.2 Is Cell Differentiation Irreversible? A zygote is totipotent , it can give rise to every cell type in the adult body. Later in development, the cells lose totipotency and become determined. Determination is followed by differentiation. But most cells retain the entire genome, and have the capacity for totipotency.
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19.2 Is Cell Differentiation Irreversible? Plant cells are usually totipotent. Differentiated cells can be removed from
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2008 for the course BIO 1306 taught by Professor Adair,tamarah during the Spring '08 term at Baylor.

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[BIO 1306] Ch19_Lecture - 19 Differential Gene Expression...

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