[BIO 1306] Ch52_Lecture

[BIO 1306] Ch52_Lecture - 52 Ecology and the Distribution...

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52 Ecology and the Distribution of Life
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52 Ecology and the Distribution of Life 52.1 What Is Ecology? 52.2 How Are Climates Distributed on Earth? 52.3 What Is a Biome? 52.4 What Is a Biogeographic Region? 52.5 How Is Life Distributed in Aquatic Environments?
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52.1 What Is Ecology? Ecology : the scientific study of interactions between organisms and their environment. These include interactions between individuals of the same species, and with individuals of other species; as predators, prey, competitors, mutualists.
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52.1 What Is Ecology? These interactions influence the structure of communities : all organisms in the same area. And ecosystems : all organisms in an area plus their physical environment. And the biosphere : all regions of the planet where organisms live.
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52.1 What Is Ecology? Environment encompasses both abiotic (physical and chemical) factors, and biotic (living) factors. Organisms both influence and are influenced by, their environment.
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52.1 What Is Ecology? The many reasons to care about ecology: The fascinating interactions among species enrich our lives and make us curious. Ecological science is needed to solve many problems. Humans depend on functioning ecosystems for many services.
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Figure 52.1 An Ecological Interaction
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52.1 What Is Ecology? An understanding of ecology allows us to manage ecosystems to maintain those services, to grow food and manage pests, to deal with natural disasters and other problems without causing harm to those ecosystems.
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52.2 How Are Climates Distributed on Earth? Climate refers to the average atmospheric conditions over a long- term. Weather is the short-term state of those conditions. “Climate is what you expect, weather is what you get!”
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52.2 How Are Climates Distributed on Earth? Climate varies around the globe mainly due to variation in the amount of solar energy received. Amount of solar energy received depends on the angle of sunlight. When the angle is low, the solar energy is spread over a large area and is less intense than if the sun is straight overhead.
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52.2 How Are Climates Distributed on Earth? When the sun’s angle is low, it must also pass through more of Earth’s atmosphere. More energy is absorbed and reflected before it reaches the ground. Thus, higher latitudes receive less solar energy than the equator. Mean annual air temperature decreases about 0.4°C for every degree of latitude.
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52.2 How Are Climates Distributed on Earth? Air temperature also decreases with elevation. As a parcel of air rises, it expands (the molecules move farther apart), the pressure drops, it cools, and releases moisture. When a parcel of air descends, it is compressed, pressure and temperature increase, and it takes up moisture.
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52.2 How Are Climates Distributed on Earth? Global air circulation patterns result from
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2008 for the course BIO 1306 taught by Professor Adair,tamarah during the Spring '08 term at Baylor.

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[BIO 1306] Ch52_Lecture - 52 Ecology and the Distribution...

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