F12_Solution_Stoichiometry Module 3 - V3

F12_Solution_Stoichiometry Module 3 - V3 - Solution...

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Solution Concentrations, Dilutions and Stoichiometry Why? Frequently scientists work with solutions rather than solids. As such you need to know the concentrations of the solutions, how to prepare the solutions and how to dilute the solutions. You can determine the number of molecules or moles present from the volume of a solution, provided you know the concentration of the solution. You will encounter problems and situations in this course, other courses, and many jobs, where you need to know the concentration of solutions. Laundry detergents, medicines, food products, cosmetics, steel, gasoline, and many other materials must contain specific amounts of certain chemical compounds to have desired properties. Scientists, engineers, and health professionals working with reactions in solution perform stoichiometric calculations to account quantitatively for the amounts of material that react and the amounts of material that are produced in the reactions. You will find these calculations straightforward if you use a strategy, such as the one in this activity that connects the reaction equation to the quantities of the chemical compounds in moles. Learning Objectives To be familiar with molarity as a concentration unit To learn how to prepare solutions with a specified molarity Determine how concentration changes upon dilution Determine the amounts of reactants that react and products produce Learn to use molarity and volume to solve stoichiometric problems. Success Criteria Accurate calculations of solution concentration Accurate conversion of concentration into the amount (moles or mass) of material Successful carry out a wide variety of stoichiometry problems. Prerequisites Mole, Molar Mass, and Stoichiometry Limiting Reactants Model 1. Preparing a Solution of Known Molarity Information: A solution is formed when one (or more) substance(s) is (are) dissolved in another. The solvent is the substance present in the larger amount. The solute is (are) the other substance(s), present in smaller amounts Water is a common solvent, and solutions involving water as the solvent are called aqueous solutions (abbreviated aq). Ex. Lactated Ringers solution is an aqueous solution containing the salts sodium chloride, sodium lactate, calcium chloride and potassium chloride. The molar concentration , or molarity (abbreviated M ), of a solution is defined as the
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number of moles of solute per liter of solution . It is a ratio of moles of solute to the volume of the solution expressed in liters. Molar concentration = molarity of the solution L moles volume moles = = L in solution of solute the of ) ( solution a of molarity M Ex. 1 Suppose we have a solution labeled 0.425 M HCl. We can express this in units of moles and liters.
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