F 2012 1112 R #14 v2 - CHE 1212R Fall 2012 Intermolecular...

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CHE 1212R Fall 2012 Intermolecular Forces Why? The forces between molecules and atoms give rise to many important properties such as drug binding efficiency, hardness or the ability to conduct electricity or the viscosity of the liquid state. Learning Objectives: 1. Students should be able to explain the common intramolecular and intermolecular forces. 2. Students should be able to predict intramolecular forces based on molecular structure. 3. Students should be able to predict macroscopic physical properties of large collections. Success Criteria 1. Successfully explain the common intramolecular and intermolecular forces. 2. Successfully predict intramolecular forces based on molecular structure. 3. Successfully predict macroscopic physical properties of large collections. Prerequisites: 1. Successfully construct Lewis structures. 2. Successfully predict molecular geometries. 3. Successfully predict polarity of molecules based on shape, and electronegativity differences. 1
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CHE 1212R Fall 2012 Model 1. Intramolecular Forces, Ionic Bonding Intramolecular forces are the forces between atoms inside a given molecule, and for the sake of discussion we will count ionic solids as “molecules.” There are two main types of intramolecular bonds, ionic bonding and covalent bonding. Ionic bonding occurs when an electron(s) is completely transferred from one atom to another atom. When a metal like sodium and a nonmetal like chlorine come together, the metal will typically lose an electron and the nonmetal will gain the electron. Na Na + + e - and Cl + e - Cl - . The cations (positive ions) are attracted to the anions (negative ions) because of the coulombic interaction between the ions which follows Coulomb’s Law : E = q 1 q 2 / k r (1), Where E is the potential energy between the two ions, q 1 is the charge on ion 1, k is a proportionality constant, and r is the distance between the ions. When sodium and chlorine react, an ionic solid is produced where every cation is surrounded by anions and every anion is surrounded by cations. See Figure 1 below (or Figure 12.40 from your text).
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