On the other hand if development refers to human and

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Unformatted text preview: te sustainability (Ehrenfeld 2008). It can point us toward the Promised Land, but it can’t get us all the way there (much like Moses). On the other hand, if ‘development’ refers to human and social development, then sustainable development can create a sustainable state. The Brundtland commission used ‘development’ in this sense, since they discussed sustainable development in terms of meeting human needs. Let me emphasize that sustainable development improves the human condition by meeting human needs in both the short and long term, but it is truly sustainable only if it does so without growth. Besides ceasing unsustainable practices that are wasteful, inefficient, or harmful to society, the economy, or the environment, we must create new, sustainable practices. McDonough and Braungart explain this concept in their influential book “Cradle to Cradle” (McDonough and Braungart 2002). They argue that we can do more than just reduce pollution and waste. We must also create positive effects, and move from being “eco-efficient to eco-effective.” McDonough and Braung...
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