SOC 2 - Chpt 11 Outline - Alcohol Other Drugs I Drugs Their...

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Alcohol & Other Drugs I. Drugs & Their Consequences. i. Drug: “any substance that, when consumed, alters one or more of the functions of the human body” ii. Psychoactive drugs: “those that can produce major alterations in the mood, emotions, perceptions, or brain functioning of the person who takes them” b. Drug Use & Abuse. i. Drug abuse: “the continued use of a psychoactive substance at a level that violates approved social practices” ii. Dependence: “a mental of physical craving for a drug & withdrawal symptoms when use of the drug is stopped” iii. Drug addiction: “physical dependence on a drug” iv. Tolerance: “physical changes that result in the need for higher & higher doses of the drug to achieve the same effect” v. Cross-dependence: “the withdrawal symptoms of one drug are alleviated by another drug in the same pharmacological class” vi. Cross-tolerance: “a tolerance built up to one drug leads to a reduced response to another drug in the same pharmacological class” c. The Societal Costs of Drug Abuse. i. Costs of drug abuse: 1. Accidents→ about 15,000 people die in traffic accidents having to do with alcohol. 2. Crime→ 1/3 of all convictions for federal offenses in the U.S today are for drug felonies. 3. Family problems→ 40% of the family court problems involve alcohol in one way or the other. 4. Work problems→ people who abuse alcohol or illicit drugs have twice the rate of missing work & are more likely to be fired. 5. Health problems→ most illegal drugs, especially if taken in large quantities, generate serious health problems & even death. II. The Extent of Drug Abuse in the United States. a. Alcohol. i. Continuous or extreme consumption of alcohol→ likely to create problems. ii. Alcoholism: “the consumption of alcohol at a level that produces serious personal, social, or health consequences, such as marital problems, occupational difficulties, accidents, or arrests” iii. People with particular social traits are more likely to become alcoholics:
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1. Sex→ men are more likely to become alcoholics than women. 2. Socioeconomic status→ rates of alcoholism are higher among people with lower levels of education & income. 3. Religion→ there are strong relations between religion & alcohol consumption. 4. Age→ alcohol abuse is more of a severe problem among younger people than the older people. b. Marijuana & Hashish. i. The amount of marijuana use in the U.S is way lower than that of alcohol. ii. The younger people use marijuana a lot more than the older people. iii. Marijuana creates feelings of pleasant euphoria & well-being, with sleepiness, sensitive sexual arousal, increased sense awareness, trouble in keeping track of time, & a decrease in short-term memory. iv. Studies show that chronic marijuana users may develop amotivational syndrome which is a lack of goals, apathy, slow mental responses, & mental confusion.
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  • Spring '12
  • VeraKennedy

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