Learning Outcomes•At the end of this week the learner should be able to:•Describe Interactive model and theory;•Explain the sequential phases in interpersonal relationships;•Explain factors affecting the nurse-patient relationship;•Discuss the relationship among theory, research and practice.
9.0 Introduction•The interactive model emphasizes the importance of interpersonal relationships between the nurse and the person. It focuses on identifying any interpersonal problems and providing intervention techniques to “promote optimal socialization. The interactive model “sees human beings as creatures who define and classify situations, including themselves, and who choose ways of acting toward and within them.
Characteristics of Interaction Models•Social Acts and Relationships•Perception: how people view the world, people, events•Communication: transferring information•Role: e.g., parent, spouse, citizen, worker•Self-Concept: how people view themselves.
Conti..•Hildegard Peplau and Virginia Henderson are two of the leading theorists of the interactive model who have laid the groundwork for future nurse theorists.
HILDEGARD PEPLAU: INTERPERSONAL MODEL•Hildegard Peplau is a leading interactive theorist who taught the importance of the relationship between the nurse and the patient. Hildegard Peplau, a psychiatric nurse introduced her interpersonal concepts in 1952. Central to Peplau’s theory is the use of a therapeutic relationship between the nurse and the client.
Client/Person•Peplau views the person as “an organism that lives in an unstable equilibrium (i.e., physiologic, psychological, and social fluidity) and life is the process of striving in the direction of stable equilibrium. Peplau describes the patient as one who needs and seeks the services of a nurse to help solve any health problems. The patient wants respect, personal dignity, and to be heard, which the nurse must be aware of at all times, behaving in a professional manner.
Conti..•A nurse, therefore, needs to be empathetic, observant, and hear what the patient does or says, apply theoretical concepts, and determine what intervention to pursue.
Environment•In Peplau’s theory the relationship between the nurse and the client, which is the critical aspect of the therapeutic process occurs within the environment. Initially, the two strangers have separate goals and interests. As the relationship progresses, they develop a mutual understanding of health goals for the client, leading to collaborative efforts to solve any health problems.
Conti..•Thus, the relationship provides the means to resolve frustration, conflict, or anxiety to meet the client’s needs.
Health•Health implies forward movement of personality and other ongoing human processes in the direction of creative, constructive, productive, personal, and community living. Thus, according to Peplau, health requires that physiological and personality needs should be met for the person to be able to express his or her capabilities in a productive way.