Notes on Scaffolds - 2.2 Scaffold The scaffold is...

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6 2.2 Scaffold: The scaffold is three-dimensional (3D), highly porous with an interconnected pore network, which provides an intermediary template/model for tissue regeneration [9]. The latest TE technology combines cells, scaffolds, and signaling substances to both physically and biologically regenerate tissue [8,22,24]. Typical scaffolds structures try to temporarily mimic the natural extracellular matrix of the tissue [2]. Assuming the role of a synthetic extracellular matrix (ECM), permits cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation for surgical implantations [8,22,23]. Therefore, the scaffolds are essentially three-dimensional (3D) to facilitate cell attachment, growth, and neotissue formation [8,25]. Scaffold design controls the cells and ultimately tissue growth by balancing mechanical function with drug delivery, as well as degradation of the scaffold adjusted to tissue regeneration [1]. In addition, the scaffold provides temporary mechanical support and guidance to the growing tissue [1]. Bone tissue engineering, which is the new strategy, provides a prospective solution to regenerate bone in a reliable, economical and physiologically acceptable manner and has emerged as an alternative to bone-grafting procedures over the past decades in order to overcome the various limitations of current grafting procedures and bone tissue substitute biomaterials [9,39].
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