Pharm final exam100 questions total (40%)Old material: 60%New material: 40%Old Stuff:Principles of pharmdon’t go slide for slide. Won’t ask definitionsPharmacokinetics (ADME) main things to take from this powerpoint. Need to knowsome of the important conceptsoLocal anesthetic, onset, duration, etcWon’t ask pharmacodynamics on the exam (2ndpowerpoint)Placebo effectsubstance produces independent effect (lactose, vit B12, vit C=impureplacebo) this is the psychologic effectSwallow a tabletfrom stomach to systemic circ. Once in there, equilibrium with freedrug and other stuff (receptors, tissues, some metabolized). Remember ADME happenssimultaneously.oA= movement of drug from site of admin to central compartment. If admin IV,goes directly to central compartment. Depends on route of admin. Drug passes viadiffusion (one of main passages). To go from EC to IC, has to be lipid soluble(unionized, means no charge). When drug is more lipid soluble, it passesmembrane, when less lipid soluble, doesn’t pass membrane aka water soluble(binds receptors remember). Drugs exist in 2 forms. Is drug weak acid or weakbase? Aspirin is weak acid, so dissolves in the stomach. If drug is basic, willdissolve/absorb in the small intestine.Can tell what drug is based on salt= HCl and sulfate attached to somethingmeans its basic so will get absorbed in the SINa attached to something means that it’s an acid, so will dissolve in thestomachThiopental is a rapid acting barb. Rapidly redistributesSite of absorptionelixir gets absorbed faster cause particles are smaller.This is pretty self-explanatory just review it if you’re not sure.Only route to give 100% biovar= IVoD= classic question is aspirin and albumin. Highly protein bound. Aspirin andwarfarin. Displacebleeding.CNS, talked about BBBVolume of distribution- certain drugs have greater or lower volume ofdistribution (amount of drug in the body to the amount of drug in theblood. Higher means it hangs around for longer. So like digoxin has highone so it hangs around for a long time)oM= main thing is the enzyme inducers and inhibitors. (classic inhib is cimetidine,but know the whole list)New ones added was ritonavir and omeprazole. He loves these, reviewthemLiver breaks stuff into water soluble. That’s the main thing we wannaaccomplishPro drug- like aspirin.
Need to know what’s phase 1 and 2. Oxidation/hydrox/deam phase 1Glucuronidation and conjugation is phase 2.“if you don’t get it on my exam you’ll get it on boards”oE= proximal tubule, loop of henle, late distal. Talked a lot about these parts indiuretics. Concept is same as absorption. If ionized, it'll stay in the tubule. Has tobe small enough to pass through glom.If swallow aspirin have to alkalinize urine, Na bicarbIf something basic, add acid. Vit C or ammonium chlorideLec 4 and 6: Adrenergics Agonists/Antag and Cholinergic Agonists/AntagAdrenergicswork on alpha 1 and 2 and beta 1 and 2oCan give a drug that depletes NEreserpine. This is sympatholytic.