Ottoman Empire

They were given titles akinci raider and deli fanatic

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Unformatted text preview: e their civil and military duties at home (first in Bursa, then in Istanbul) to executive ministers (vizier). Aside from viziers, the sultans also appointed commanders and civil governors to newly acquired territories and granted them the rank of Bey. State Policy was discussed and determined to these viziers in meetings referred to as Dican- I Humayun or simply Diwan (imperial Council). In the early days Diwan was chaired by the sultan, but later a vizier among viziers (sadr- I Azam, often Sadrazam) was chosen to represent the Sultan (almost like first minister). Originally a military enterprise, the Ottoman state recruited soldiers from the Turkish horsemen organized in clans. Their main source of income was booty. Orhan I replaced them with a new, separate army who entered his service in return for regular salary (Janissaries). This way, the Ottoman sultan were able to tame the wild Turkomans and direct them for raiding the frontier as shock troops. They were given titles Akinci (raider) and Deli (fanatic). Murad I developed the standing army with a new military force composed of “Slaves of the Porte” (Kapikulu). These young cadets were given proper education and training and organized as Janissaries or cavalrymen (Sipahi). In areas, where direct Ottoman control was established the basis of military and administrative system was timar (fief). The timars were assigned to ottoman military commanders as rewards for their service, who in return administered these lands and raised soldiers. • Discussion Section: • Kapikulu Army – slaves • Devshirme – timariots- Timar system • Timar – basic plot of land, but not the land that is granted, timar holders gets right of coll...
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This note was uploaded on 01/13/2014 for the course HIST 160 taught by Professor Agoston during the Fall '08 term at Georgetown.

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