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INTELLIGENCE – no chapter•intelligenceohistory of intelligence testingofactor analytic viewoinformation processing and intelligenceoalternative approaches to intelligence•definition of intelligenceo1. capacity to learn from experience, usable knowledge for future useo1. ability to adapt to surrounding environment, apply what you know to current situationo2. metacognitive processes (thinking of cognitive processes) to govern cognition, contemplate what cognitive processes would be appropriate for the situationo2. may vary by culture•measures of intelligenceostudy of intelligence really got going in psychology due to a desire to measure intelligenceoways we have measured intelligence have influenced how we define intelligencea) capacity to learn from experienceb) ability to adapt to surrounding environment otwo traditions of intelligence measurement:psychophysical abilities•sensory acuity, physical strength, motor coordination•Sir Francis Galton – you gain intelligence from experience, gain experience from sensory abilities, many distinct abilities judgmental abilities•problem solving, reasoning•Alfred Binet – components of intelligence are reasoning, judgment, memory, an d power of abstraction•Binet and IQ: goal was to classify children, predicting school performanceodefinition became = the likelihood you will succeed in school•Stern = ratio of chronological age to mental age (how well you score on the test)obut can’t do this, what is the mental age of a 16 to a 40 yr oldoaround 16 mental age stops increasing, rarely used todayocompare to others of your age•IQ = (MA/CA) x 100•face validity is not worth that muchStandard Tests•Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS): verbal (vocab/verbal similarities), performance (picture completion/picture arrangement)
omust be administered individually omost people think that this is the best testoinevitably bound to culture where you were raised in•Ravens Progressive Matrices Test: see if you can discern a pattern in box of matricesodesigned to be a culture free test, probably not though•factor analysisomethod of studying intelligenceostatistical technique designed to determine if underlying relationships exist between sets of variables/items measured by some instrumentoformal method that replaces our eyeballing techniqueodiagram A: general intelligence (g)there is a single thing that underlies intelligence on all four testsscores on all four tests ought to correlate thenbut there are actually two types of intelligenceodiagram B: verbal intelligence and mathematical intelligence