cognition lecture - intelligence - INTELLIGENCE no chapter...

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INTELLIGENCE – no chapter intelligence o history of intelligence testing o factor analytic view o information processing and intelligence o alternative approaches to intelligence definition of intelligence o 1. capacity to learn from experience, usable knowledge for future use o 1. ability to adapt to surrounding environment, apply what you know to current situation o 2. metacognitive processes (thinking of cognitive processes) to govern cognition, contemplate what cognitive processes would be appropriate for the situation o 2. may vary by culture measures of intelligence o study of intelligence really got going in psychology due to a desire to measure intelligence o ways we have measured intelligence have influenced how we define intelligence a) capacity to learn from experience b) ability to adapt to surrounding environment o two traditions of intelligence measurement: psychophysical abilities sensory acuity, physical strength, motor coordination Sir Francis Galton – you gain intelligence from experience, gain experience from sensory abilities, many distinct abilities judgmental abilities problem solving, reasoning Alfred Binet – components of intelligence are reasoning, judgment, memory, an d power of abstraction Binet and IQ: goal was to classify children, predicting school performance o definition became = the likelihood you will succeed in school Stern = ratio of chronological age to mental age (how well you score on the test) o but can’t do this, what is the mental age of a 16 to a 40 yr old o around 16 mental age stops increasing, rarely used today o compare to others of your age IQ = (MA/CA) x 100 face validity is not worth that much Standard Tests Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS): verbal (vocab/verbal similarities), performance (picture completion/picture arrangement)
o must be administered individually o most people think that this is the best test o inevitably bound to culture where you were raised in Ravens Progressive Matrices Test: see if you can discern a pattern in box of matrices o designed to be a culture free test, probably not though factor analysis o method of studying intelligence o statistical technique designed to determine if underlying relationships exist between sets of variables/items measured by some instrument o formal method that replaces our eyeballing technique o diagram A: general intelligence (g) there is a single thing that underlies intelligence on all four tests scores on all four tests ought to correlate then but there are actually two types of intelligence o diagram B: verbal intelligence and mathematical intelligence

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