Manufacturing Technical Paper

Although not all polymeric materials are

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Unformatted text preview: onal Scaffold Fabrication Techniques One major drawback from conventional manufacturing methods is the fact that porous scaffolds cannot be produced with full control of the geometrical parameters, such as pore size, pore interconnection size and porosity. For example, scaffolds fabricated by combination of photopolymerization and salt leaching often contain inhomogenities of pore distribution as shown in Figure 2 [12]. Figure 2: MicroCT analysis of salt- leached, photopolymerized scaffold fabrication with Kerr dental lamp. Other general limitations to the conventional techniques include: 1. They are associated with poor reproducibility, irregularity of pore shape, and insufficient pore interconnectivity. 2. They require extensive use of toxic organic solvents to dissolve the raw stocks (granules, pellets, or powders) and convert into the final scaffold. 3. It is also difficult to remove the toxic solvents completely from the fabricated scaffolds especially, in thicker constructs. 4. Some of the techniques produce scaffolds mostly in the form of foams. Cells are seeded and expected to grow into scaffold. Probably due to the diffusion constraint of the foam, there is a scarcity of nutrients and oxygen supply, and insufficient removal of waste products. The imperfection of the conventional techniques has encouraged the use of a rapid prototyping (RP) technology in the scaffold design and fabrication stages of tissue engineering [26]. 3.2 3 Dimensional Printing (3DP) The material for fabrication must be in powder form [2]. A counter- clockwise roller spreads and slightly compresses a thin homogenous...
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