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Unformatted text preview: Objectives 0. Understand the basic characteristics of RAM, a volatile type of system memory. 1. Differentiate between types of RAM based on their features and designs, especially contemporary memory technologies such as DDR SDRAM 2. Examine current non-volatile types of ROM and their characteristics. 3. Random Access Memory
0. 1. 2. 3. 4. SRAM DRAM SDRAM DDRAM RDRAM Memory RAM 4. Volatility 5. Refresh 6. Access Speed 7. Packaging 8. Volatility 9. Refresh Signal RAM RAM RAM 10.CAS: Column Address Strobe Latency 11.Latency of Memory RAM 5. Initial Burst and not the system's bus speed 6. The smaller the CAS number, the better 12.Access Speed 13.Packaging RAM RAM RAM 14.ECC: Error Checking Correcting or Error Correcting Code
7. Reed-Solomon the most common type 8. 64bits with 7bits extra for correcting 9. ECC RAM cost 10-20% more 15.Registered Memory 16.Type of buffered memory RAM 10. Cannot be mixed with unregistered type 11. Many dual CPU require registered memory 12. Higher price sometimes double the cost of unregistered memory 13. Sharpens the signal for clear 1's and 0's 14. Static Random Access Memory 15. Cache 16. Does Not require a refresh signal 17. Larger packaging 18. Expensive 19. Used to assist the CPU 20. Packaging 21. SRAM requires four to six transistors for each bit of data 22. Example for 256KB of cache (SRAM).
0. 256KB = 8+ million transistors SRAM SRAM 23. Flip Flop = No Refresh Signal SRAM DRAM 24. Dynamic Random Access Memory
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Cost Efficient Smaller Packaging than SRAM Requires a refresh signal Uses one capacitor and one transistor to hold a bit of data 256MB of RAM = 2048 million Transistor/ Capacitor pairs total 17.The leaky bucket example DRAM 25. Level detector = analog device 26. DRAM slower than SRAM 18.Synchronous dynamic random access memory 19.Synchronous dynamic random access memory
27. 28. 29. 30. Interleaving alternates two cell banks Synchronized with the clock Data burst mode for faster transfer speeds. 168 Pin DIMM package with 2 notches SDRAM SDRAM 20.Double Data Rate Random Access Memory
31. 184 Pin DIMM package with one notch 32. 64 bit channel DDR-SDRAM DDRRAM DDRRAM DDRRAM 21.JEDEC 22.Set Standards for many Semiconductors & sets DDR speeds. 23.Over clocked memory is not supported by JEDEC or most chipsets. BE CAREFUL BEFORE YOU BUY!!!! 33. Joint Electron Device Engineering Council. DDRRAM
24.Expect higher initial latencies until the bugs are worked out of the technology 25.Increased memory bandwidth 26.Increased speeds, more efficient electrical setup, better pre-fetch technology, additional buffers, better packaging, and on-die termination. 27.Increase speeds of 20 50% faster. DDR II aka DDR2 28.Rambus dynamic random access memory
34. Intel P4 originally designed for RDRAM 35. Requires less bus width 36. Faster than DDRRAM 37. 184 Pin RIMM
6. 16 18 bit channels at higher frequencies DDR II aka DDR2 SDRAM and Cousins RDRAM 0. Read Only Memory
0. Non-Volatile 1. Expensive ROM 38. Programmable Read-Only Memory 39. Difficult to Change 40. Slower than RAM PROM 29.Erasable PROM EPROM 30.Electrically-Erasable PROM 31.Used in modern BIOS chips 32.Flash Memory EEPROM Objectives 7. Distinguish the mass storage technologies and their particular characteristics. 8. Visualize the construction of a magnetic storage device and comprehend low-and high-level formatting. 9. Differentiate between the logical and physical layers of the hard drive and comprehend the resulting file system structures. 10. Identify the processes for formatting a new hard drive, including partitioning. 11. Comprehend today's different hard drive technologies. 12. Describe the construction and operation of optical disk storage technologies. Storage 33.Punch Cards 34.Punch Tape 35.Magnetic Tape The Old Technologies 36.Magnetic Storage Storage Types 41. Floppy Drives 42. Hard Disk Drives 43. Music Cassette 37.Optical Drives
44. CD Rom 45. CDR 46. CDRW Storage Types 47. DVD 38.Cost Storage Characteristics 48. The smaller the physical drive and the larger the capacity, the more cost. 49. Different interfaces changes cost
13. USB, IDE, SCSI, IEEE1394 39.Access Speed Storage Characteristics 50. How fast we can write and read data 51. Serial technologies cheaper than parallel 40.First - Non-magnetic platter Magnetic Storage 52. Floppy Disk - Mylar 53. Hard Disk - Metal, Ceramic, or Glass 41.Second - Magnetic material added Magnetic Storage Magnetic Storage 54. Coat with a thin layer of magnetic domains 42.Characteristics of the magnetic surface
55. Coercivity 56. Retentivity 57. Coercivity Magnetic Storage 14. Generally, larger drive capacities require higher coercivity 58. Retentivity Magnetic Storage Magnetic Storage Magnetic Storage Magnetic Storage Magnetic Storage Partitioning How long will saved data remain viable. 43.Tracks Divides the platter into rings 44.Double side Store data on both sides of the platter 45.Cylinder All track of the same number together form a cylinder 46.Sectors Dividing up tracks into smaller segments 47.Prepares disk for OS 48.Divides the physical hard disk into sections 49.The order
59. FDISK (Partition) 60. Format 61. Reinstall (Load OS) 50.Sector Magnetic Storage 62. The smallest unit of storage on a disk. 63. 512 bytes or 0.5k bytes or a kilobyte 64. Grouped into clusters 51.Cluster Magnetic Storage 52.Cluster Magnetic Storage 65. The smallest unit of disk space that the OS can allocate to a file 66. It consists of two or more sectors 67. Generally, the larger the disk drive, the more sectors per cluster 53.Low Level Formatting Format 68. Performed at the factory 69. Converts the single blank surface into tracks and sectors 70. Finds and remaps bad spots on the disk so that the operating system can avoid them 54.High Level Formatting Format 71. Originally performed by the user or vendor of the computer 72. Creates Boot Record, FAT, and the Root Directory 73. Performed with the FORMAT Command 55.The road map to the disk 56.Names: File System 74. FAT (File Allocation Table) Windows 3X, 9X and ME 75. NTFS (New Technology File System) Windows NT 76. HFS (Hierarchical File System) Linux & MAC OSX 57.FAT 32 File System HDD Technology 77. 2TB Maximum Partition 78. 4k Cluster @ 2GB 58.HDD 79. Hard Disk Device 59.Controller 60.IDE, SATA, SCSI Drive Interface Technologies 80. Allows for the PC to ignore what's on the drive and concentrate on the data transfer 61.Typically 5400 rpm's, 7200 rpm's 62.ATA 63.Advance Technology Attachment
15. ATA66 66MBps 16. ATA100 100MBps 17. ATA133 133MBps HDD Technology IDE Drives 64.ATA66 66MBps ATA 65.ATA133 & ATA100 100MBps 133MBps
83. Uses 40 pin 80 conductor cable 82. Uses 40 pin 40 conductor cable 66.ATA transfer rates may be indicated with the following acronyms when reading specs:
84. ATA, UDMA, DMA, IDE, EIDE Reading Specs SATA 67.Serial ATA
85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 10,000 rpm drives Non Parallel form Point to Point connection using four wires 150 MBps Thinner cables facilitates airflow Allows for smaller chassis design Can extend to up to one meter SATA ATA/SATA Adaptors 92. High Speed Parallel data transfers 93. 10,000 & 15,000 rpm drives 94. High cost, more effort to configure 95. Separate controller card most cases 96. 320MB/s for Ultra SCSI 4 SCSI 68.The idea: RAID 97. Allows for several small disks to act as one big hard drive 98. RAID common types:
18. RAID 0 19. RAID 1 20. RAID 2 21. RAID 3 22. RAID 4 23. RAID 5 69.The fastest and most efficient array 70.No fault tolerance 71.Array of choice for performance-critical 72.Fault tolerant 73.Uses error correction code 74.RAID 3 RAID 0 RAID 1 RAID 2 RAID 3 - 5 99. One drive used for ECC 100. Data is "striped" 101. 102. 24. Very fast reads and writes 75.RAID 4 76.RAID 5 Similar to 3, except data is written in blocks ECC information written across multiple drives 77.Factory CD's use lands and pits to read binary information as 0's and 1's based on how the laser light reflects.. 78.Computer CDR Drives use dye to replicate actual grooved surfaces. 79.Digital Versatile/Video Disc Read Only Memory 80.4 hours of quality video or 30 hours of VHS quality video
103. Internal Drives 104. IDE CD/DVD Drives 105. Connect with ribbon cable to IDE connector on motherboard same as HDD 106. Use ATAPI transfer technology 107. 108.
25. ATA Packet Interface Optical Storage CD Drives DVD ROM Interfaces Slower than HHD External Drives 109. USB 110. IEEE 1394 111. Speeds from 60MBs to 100MBs 112. Usually not able to boot from these devices to install an OS Interfaces ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2008 for the course SP 0710 taught by Professor Dino during the Spring '08 term at Full Sail.
- Spring '08