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Chapter 5: From Empire to Independence•Colonies became more important for the British mainland economy•Colonies experienced agricultural and commercial growth but remained diverse in composition and outlookoGenerally adverse to cooperative effortsThe Heritage of War•Most Americans submitted willingly to the English government due to their alliance in French and Indian WaroHowever, American nationalism was buildingBrutalities of English soldiers heightened sense of separate identityEnglish soldiers were inept at frontier fighting; initial respect for them was lostEnglish disrupted the colonies’ illegal but necessary molasses trade with the French West IndiesWrits of assistance (unspecific search warrants) and naval patrolsBoston merchants hired James Otisto fight writs of assistance; he lost but revealed that writs of assistance were like slavery•Why was revenue needed?oManagement and defense of new global possessionsoPayment of war debtoExpansion of colonial administration and defenseBritish Politics•Nearly every politician was a Whig: a name given to those who had opposed James II, led the Glorious Revolution of 1688, and secured Protestant successionoChampions of individual liberty and parliamentary supremacyoWhiggism drifted into complacency: dominant group of landowners became concerned with personal wealth•George III wanted to limit Whigs so ousted William Pitt as prime minister and established “king’s friends”oGovernment became unstable. Ministries rose and fell usually because someone offended the king, etc.oColonial policy remained marginal to the chief concerns of British politics. The result was inconsistency and vacillation followed by stubborn inflexibility.Western Lands•Royal Proclamation of 1763: issued by king, drew an imaginary line along the crest of the Appalachians, beyond which settlers were forbidden to go, in response to Pontiac’s Rebellionoalso established new British colonies of Quebec and East and West Floridaoproclamation line was ineffective; hardy settlers pushed across the mountainsGrenville and Stamp ActGrenville’s Colonial Policy•The new prime minister and first lord of Treasury, George Grenville, was much like the king: industrious, honest, hard-headedoHe and king believed in same basic policies: cutting government expenses, reducing national debt, generating more revenue from colonies to pay for defenseoWanted to keep a large army in Americato avoid rapid demobilization but too costlyoBritish collection of taxes in America was ineffective: corruption and evasion were rampantoTightened enforcement in America and established maritime vice-admiralty courts
oUnder Grenville, salutary neglect endedoMolasses Act of 1733: serious threat to New England, purpose was not to make revenue but to prevent illegal trade. Grenville realized that this would be ruinous so he established Revenue Act of 1764 (Sugar Act)