Socialization - Lecture:Study Notes - Chapter 4-...

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Chapter 4- SocializationSocial Isolation and the Crystallization of Self-Identity-socialization is the process by which people learn their culture-they do so by:1. Entering and disengaging from a succession of roles2. Becoming aware of themselves as they interact w/ othersRene Spitz: compared children who were being raised in an orphanage w/ children being raised in a prison nursinghome-orphans had much less contact w/ people (social deprivation)-thus, they were more susceptible to infections and had a higher death rate-by the time they were 2 or 3 yrs old, children from the nursing home were walking and talking comparedto the 8% of the orphans-might have impaired sexual life when mature-thus, w/o childhood socialization, most of our human potential remains undeveloped-the formation of a sense of self continues in adolescence (rapid self-development)Theories of Childhood SocializationFreud:-social interaction soon enables infants to being developing a sense ofselfwhich is a set of ideas and attitudesabout who they are as independent beings-the part of the self that demands immediate gratification is theid-self-image begins to emerge once the id’s demands are denied-the child eventually develops a sense of what constitutes appropriate behaviour and moral sense of right andwrongsuperego-the child then develops a third sense of self called theegowhich balances the conflicting needs of the id andsuperego-Freud views the emergence of the superego as a painful and frustrating process-thus in order to get on w/ our lives we need to repress memories of denying the id-repressed memories are stored in theunconscious3 criticisms to Freud’s argument1.The connections b/w early childhood development and adult personality are more complex than heassumed-wrote that when the ego fails to balance the needs of the id and the superego, individuals developpersonality disorders2.Many sociologists criticize Freud for gender bias in his analysis of male and female sexuality-argued that psychologically normal women are immature and dependent on men b/c they envy themale sexual organ-classified women who are independent and mature as abnormal3.Sociologists often criticize Freud for neglecting socialization after childhood-he believed that the human personality was fixed at the age of five
Cooley’s symbolic interactionism:-introduced idea of “looking-glass self”-observed that when we interact w/ others, they gesture and react to us-allow us to imagine how we appear to them and judge how others evaluate us-thus, we develop a self-concept of who we areMead:-noted that a subjective and impulsive aspect of the self is present from birthI-argued that a repository of culturally approved standards emerges as part of the selfme-drew attention to the unique human capacity to “take the role of the other” as the source of the me-the “me” is not present at birth but emerges only gradually during social interaction

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Term
Winter
Professor
EytanLasry
Tags
Sociology, Self Identity, Mass Media, Childhood Socialization, Dilemmas of Childhood and Adolescent Socialization

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