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RECONSTRUCTION TEST STUDY GUIDEFreedmen’s Bureau - - General Howard ran Bureau, agency of the army- authorized to furnish, clothe, feed and provide transportation for former slaves- Major on providing Education-too small, only operated for one yearRadical Reconstruction -- led by representative Thaddeus Stevens and Senator Charles Sumner- proposed disenfranchising large numbers of southern whites, - protecting black civil rights- confiscation of property of wealthy white Southerners who aided Confederacy (gave it to freedmen)Lincoln’s Reconstruction Plan -10% Plan- Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (December 8, 1863)- “loyal rule” - create government in states that will be loyal to national government- Congress not consulted- Pardon to all but the highest ranking military and civilian Confederate officers- To be recognized as a state a again:- 10% of the voting population in the 1860 election = oath of loyalty- establish a government1864 → “Lincoln’s Governments” formed in Louisiana, Tennessee, Arkansas- “loyal assemblies”- weak, dependent on the Union armyJohnson’s Reconstruction Plan -- Amnesty = simple oath of loyalty to most- exceptions: Confederate military officers and people who owned property valued over $20,000 (had to apply directly to Johnson)- State Constitutions: repudiate slavery, secession and state debts- Effects: - disenfranchised (can’t vote) certain leading Confederates- pardoned planter aristocrats brought them back to political power to control state organizations- Republicans were outraged that planter elite were back in power in SouthCongressional Reconstruction - Included the Civil Rights Act of 1866, saying that all blacks are U. S. citizens, and the 14th Amendment, see below. Wade-Davis bill - bill would have delayed readmission indefinitely- 50% of the 1860 voters = “iron clad” oath of aliance- state constitutional convention before the election of the state officials- enacted specific safeguards of freedoms liberties- Lincoln could either pass or veto bill (10 days to decide before it becomes a law without signing)- Pocket Veto - if Lincoln got bill while Congress is out of session he can put in “pocket” and it gets vetoed without him having to take action(lincoln did this to this bill)Lincoln’s assassination -John Wilkes Booth (actor committed to the Southern cause) shoots
him in a theater. (But Batman saves him) yes.Black Codes -- Could marry other blacks but not whites- Could own property (but was difficult)- Could make contracts (but was difficult)- Could testify in court but only against blacks- Legalized segregation- Forced many blacks to become sharecroppersPurpose: - Guarantee stable labor supply now that blacks were emancipated- Restore pre-emancipation system of race relations (replace South codes)Tenure of Office Act -It said that the president couldn’t get rid of a federal official or military commander without the approval of CongressCivil Rights Act - equal accommodations in public places and prohibited courts from excluding blacks from juriesCommand of the Army Act -