Unformatted text preview: Motivation What is Motivation? Process that influences the direction, persistence, and vigor of goal-directed behavior Motivation Instinct Theories Inherited characteristics Common to all species members Automatically produce a particular response to a particular stimulus Motivation Instinct Theories Little support; simplistic explanations for human behavior Circular reasoning problems Heredity partly accounts for motivational differences among people Motivation Drive Reduction Theory of Motivation (Hull, 1943) Physiological disruptions to homeostasis produce drives Drives motivate behaviors to reduce tension Motivation Incentives Stimuli that "pull" an organism toward a goal (e.g., good grades, food) Motivation Extrinsic Motivation Performing an activity to obtain an external reward or to avoid punishment Intrinsic Motivation Performing an activity for its own sake Motivation Psychodynamic View Unconscious motives affect how we behave Freud emphasized sexual and aggressive motives Many modern theorists emphasize motives for self-esteem and social belonging Motivation Humanistic Views Striving for personal growth Need hierarchy (Maslow, 1954) Deficiency needs Human growth needs Self-actualization Motivation for hunger Signals that Start a Meal Stomach contractions correspond to feelings of hunger, but do not cause it Hunger is experienced even if nerves from stomach to brain are severed Cause of Hunger Decline in blood glucose levels Motivation Signals that Start a Meal Changes in supply of glucose provide signals that help brain regulate hunger Motivation Signals that End a Meal Stomach and intestinal distention Cholecystokinin (CCK) and other peptides released by small intestine into bloodstream, travel to brain Motivation Signals That Regulate General Appetite and Weight Leptin Hormone secreted by fat cells Signals brain to decrease appetite and increase energy expenditure Motivation Hunger: Psychological Aspects Good taste of food positively reinforces eating Hunger reduction negatively reinforces eating Memory of how much and when we last ate Motivation Dieting: Psychological and Environmental Factors Societal pressures to be thin Body image dissatisfaction Ethnic differences in dieting May evolve into eating disorder Motivation Anorexia Nervosa Severe restriction of food intake Weight substantially (15%) below normal for age and height Motivation Anorexia Nervosa Symptoms __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ Motivation Anorexia Nervosa Characteristics __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ Motivation Bulimia Nervosa Binge-eat and then purge food by vomiting or using laxatives Motivation Causes of Anorexia and Bulimia Cultural norms for thinness Genetic predisposition Abnormal activity of serotonin, leptin (cause or effect?) Personality and upbringing Motivation Causes of Anorexia Perfectionism Need for control Disapproving parents who set high achievement standards Motivation Causes of Bulimia Depression and anxiety Low impulse control Lack stable sense of personal identity Motivation Sexual Motivation Desire to reproduce Obtain and give sensual pleasure Express love and intimacy Fulfill "duty" Conform to peer pressure Motivation Physiology of Sex Hormonal Influences Organizational effects on male and female sex characteristics Activational effects on sexual desire and behavior Motivation Psychology of Sex Desire Sexual stimulus perceived positively Negative influences: stress, fatigue, anger, performance anxiety Motivation Culture and Sex Psychological meaning of sex depends on cultural contexts Cultural norms affect sexual practices and techniques Motivation Premarital Sex Increased in Last Half of 20th Century Changing social norms Tendency to delay marriage Trend has leveled off and may even be reversing Motivation Effects of Pornography Social learning theory Catharsis principle What do you predict?
Motivation Effects of Pornography Conclusions from correlational studies are unclear Experiments: viewing violent pornography tends to increase men's aggression toward women Motivation Sexual Orientation One's emotional and erotic preference for partners of a particular sex Unidimensional View "Exclusively heterosexual" to "Exclusively homosexual" Motivation Sexual Orientation Multidimensional view self-identity sexual attraction actual sexual behavior Motivation What Determines Sexual Orientation? Hereditary predisposition Other causal factors biological, psychological, and environmental are still debated Motivation Sexual Orientation: Other hypothesized causal factors Prenatal sex hormone activity Fraternal birth order effect Personality style and socialization May be multiple paths; paths for men and women may differ Motivation The Desire to Affiliate Evolutionary theory: Humans have evolved to become highly social creatures Affiliation provided many adaptive advantages Motivation Affiliation provided many adaptive advantages (cont'd) Greater access to sexual mates More protection from predators Efficient division of labor Development of culture and passing of knowledge Motivation Why do we affiliate? Obtain positive stimulation Receive emotional support Gain attention Permit social comparison Motivation Social Comparison (cont'd) Comparing beliefs, feelings, and behaviors with other people Helps to determine if our responses are "normal" Motivation Seeking a Mate Mating strategies: On average, compared with women, men have more
permissive sexual attitudes interest in short-term mating short-term sexual partners Motivation Seeking a Mate Mate preferences: On average, Men place more value than women on a mate's looks and domestic skills Women place more value than men on a mate's earning potential, status, and ambition Motivation Sexual Strategies Theory (Buss & Schmitt, 1993) Sex differences in seeking a mate reflect inherited tendencies Shaped to different adaptive problems faced by men and women throughout evolution Motivation Social Structure Theory (Eagly & Wood, 1999) Sex differences in seeking a mate arise because: society directs men and women into different social roles Women have less power and access to resources than men Motivation Seeking a Mate: Are Men and Women from "Different Planets?" "Averages" mask considerable overlap between men and women Sex-differences within a culture are often smaller than differences among men across cultures or among women across cultures Motivation Need for Achievement Personality characteristic Represents desire to accomplish tasks and attain standards of excellence Motivation High Achievement Motivation involves a: strong motive for success (positive) weak fear of failure (negative) Motivation High need-achievers Perceive themselves as responsible for outcomes Prefer challenging tasks that involve moderate risk of not succeeding Desire performance feedback Motivation Types of Achievement Goals Mastery Goals Desire to master tasks and learn knowledge, skills Performance-Approach Goals Desire to be judged favorably compared to other people Performance-Avoidance Goals Desire to avoid negative judgments Motivation Achievement Goals (Cont'd) Overall, performance-approach and mastery goals are related to a high need for achievement Motivation Motivational Conflict Approach-approach Person must choose between two attractive alternatives Avoidance-avoidance Person must choose between two unattractive alternatives Approach-avoidance Person is attracted to and repelled by the same goal Emotion What are emotions? Feeling (affect) states that involve a pattern of cognitive, physiological, and behavioral reactions to events Emotion Adaptive Functions of Emotions Increase chances of survival Help us form intimate relationships Help us to broaden our thinking and behavior Emotion Emotions as Social Communications Provide clues about our internal states and intentions Emotion Common Features of Emotions Triggered by external or internal eliciting stimuli Result from appraisals of stimuli Physiological responses Include behavior tendencies Emotion Cognitive Appraisals Interpretations and meanings attached to sensory stimuli Different appraisals can result in different behaviors Emotion Brain Structures Involved Interactions between the limbic system and the cerebral cortex (Borod, 2000; Edwards, 1998) Thalamus, amygdala Emotion Dual System for Emotional Processing (LeDoux, 2000) Thalamus sends messages to: Cortex Amygdala Emotion Expressive Behaviors Person's observable emotional displays Products of evolution? (Darwin) Emotion Instrumental Behaviors Directed at achieving an emotion relevant goal Emotion Facial Expression of Emotions Emotion James-Lange Theory Bodily reactions determine the subjective emotion we experience Emotion Cannon-Bard Theory Emotional experience and arousal are independent responses to an emotionarousing situation Emotion Schachter's 2-Factor Theory (1966) Intensity of arousal influences how strongly we feel something Situational cues affect labeling of emotion Emotion Positive Psychology (Aspinwell & Staudinger, 2003) Addresses questions related to: Happiness Well-being Human potential TABLE 9.4 How Happy Are You? Here are two measures of subjective well-being. Answer the following questions, then see the text to compare yourself with others. First, how would you rate your own general life satisfaction on the following scale? 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Most unhappy Next, answer the following questions: Most happy What percentage of the time are you happy? _______ What percentage of the time are you neutral? _______ What percentage of the time are you unhappy? ______
(Make sure your percentages add up to 100.) Emotion What Makes People Happy? Adequate level of health and wealth More beyond "adequate levels" don't increase happiness Emotion What Makes People Happy? Intimate relationships Sense of meaning in life Downward comparisons Genetic factors Personality factors Emotion Personality factors involved in happiness (Larsen & Buss, 2002) Sociability Optimism Altruism Curiosity Openness to new experiences Emotion Maintaining and Enhancing Happiness Time spent with others Development of close relationships Be helpful to others Seek meaning and challenge in work Emotion Maintaining and Enhancing Happiness cont. Set meaningful personal goals Time for enjoyable activities Nurture physical well-being Openness to new experiences Cultivate optimism ...
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- Spring '07