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psych ch6 - chapter 6 interconnections between acquisition...

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chapter 6: interconnections between acquisition and retrieval RETRIEVAL HINTS AND CUES -any bit of learning might prepare you for some forms of memory retrieval but not others -learning prepares you to access (and retrieve) a memory from a particular starting point, and the learning will help you if you're at that point *state dependent learning : a phenomenon in which learning seems linked to the persons mental, emotional, or biological state during the learning. -as a result of this linkage, the learning is most likely to show its effects when the person is again in that mental, emotional, or biological state. (on land/underwater example) -recall performance is best if someone’s state at the time of testing matches their state at the time of learning *context reinstatement : improved memory performance if we recreate the context that was in place during learning -context has its effect only b/c it influences how the person thinks about the materials to be remembered ENCODING SPECIFICITY *encoding specificity : the tendency, when memorizing, to place in memory both the materials to be learned and also some amount of the context of those materials. -as a result, these materials will be recognized as familiar, later on, only if the materials appear again in a similar context. -after hearing a lecture, the actual lecture and thoughts about the lecture are stored in memory. This extra material can change the meaning of what is remembered (jelly jam vs. traffic jam) -stimulus as understood is what stays in memory DIFFERENT FORMS OF MEMORY TESTING *recall : presented with a cue that broadly identifies the information that we seek, but we need to come up with the information on our own (where were you last Saturday?) -recall requires memory search and depends heavily on memory connections or relationships you created between material and previous knowledge *recognition : information is presented to us and we must decide whether it’s the sought after information or not (is this the man who robbed you?)
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-also involves a search but not for the item, instead a search for the earlier episode in which you encountered that item *source memory : a form of memory that allows one to recollect the episode in which learning took place, or the time and place in which a particular stimulus was encountered -familiarity and attribution of that familiarity -possible to have familiarity without source memory and vice versa -familiarity without source memory example: turn on TV and recognize face but don’t know where from -source memory without familiarity example: capgras syndrome, has memories of the past but faces seen unfamiliar -each give off different pattern of brain waves -source memory is promoted by learning that creates memory connections -familiarity does not create connections, but the mere exposure to an item can establish familiarity IMPLICIT MEMORY *experiment by Jacoby -no context condition: XXXX, Dark "Dark" - doesnt think about meaning -context condition: read antonym, Hot, Cold "Cold"
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