Chapter 1 - Chapter 1 Introduction: Matter and Measurement...

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Chapter 1 Introduction: Matter and Measurement
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Chemistry is the study of matter and the changes it undergoes Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. A pure substance is a form of matter that has a definite composition and distinct properties. Examples: water, ammonia, sucrose, gold, oxygen
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Matter: Anything that has mass and takes up space.
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Matter Atoms are the building blocks of matter. Each element is made of the same kind of atom. A compound is made of two or more different kinds of elements. ( Law of Constant Composition or Definite Proportions )
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States of Matter ( vapor)
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Fixed shape and volume No fixed shape; fixed volume No fixed shape or volume
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An Element An element is a substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical means. 118 elements have been identified 90 elements occur naturally on Earth gold, aluminum, lead, oxygen, carbon 28 new elements have been created by scientists Technetium (#43), Promethium (#61); Neptunium (#93) Plutonium (#94) etc
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Chemical symbols with one letter have that letter capitalized (e.g., H, B, C, N, etc.) Chemical symbols with two letters have only the first letter capitalized (e.g., He, Be).
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A Compound A compound is a substance composed of atoms of two or more elements chemically united in fixed proportions. Law of Constant Composition (or Law of Definite Proportions): The composition of a pure compound is always the same. Water – H 2 O Ammonia – NH 3 Glucose – C 6 H 12 O 6 Compounds can only be separated into their pure components (elements) by chemical means .
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A mixture is a combination of two or more substances in which the substances retain their distinct identities. 1. Homogenous mixture – composition of the mixture is the same throughout. 1. Heterogeneous mixture – composition is not uniform throughout. soft drink, milk, solder cement, iron filings in sand
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Chemical Symbols of the Common Elements A more detailed look!
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Nine Non-Metals that have Symbols Consisting of a Single Letter H H ydrogen Most of the universe is hydrogen! B B oron C C arbon Important in biology N N itrogen Makes up 78% of the atmosphere O O xygen Makes up 21% of the atmosphere and 46% of the earth’s crust F F luorine P P hosphorus S S ulfur I I odine
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Symbols Derived from the First Two Letters of the English Name Al Al uminum Ar Ar gon Li Li thium Ca Ca lcium He He lium Si Si licon Makes up ~25% of the earth’s crust Ba Ba rium Br Br omine
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Some Later Letter of the English Name Mg M a g n esium (1 st rd letter) Mn M a n ganese (1 st rd letter) Cl C h l orine (1 st rd letter)
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2008 for the course CHE 101 taught by Professor Churchhill during the Spring '08 term at SUNY Buffalo.

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Chapter 1 - Chapter 1 Introduction: Matter and Measurement...

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