9.1 - _W_L}E/A Q/Z’yfixfléigréQW/fid ‘ ’ A...

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Unformatted text preview: ___W__L}E/A Q/Z’yfixfléigréQW/fid ‘ ’ A Lw-fiwafiw‘a‘fMawmrzmdiArza-[2__ _ __ - wt" W M _. “MfiéDfT/flffitfléfimoMEILJZéJQQKMM "1%. @Jofle/wmc_;a£/oa’.7namzt¢_fifflzgdar ' , ' :11 _;___W__mé/§&_%X€_dfi_gfikafif .chy;_[é_il;£-2<,§@° WQL ‘Q/cyfmmflmfi M_Q_£@€m if 5% [6414944’7fisw 27—..— - j 4y--£€d7flol/4S~A/om_é€c___1_fiét_g€_&_fl_&_c:— @LWJQJMEJJKNQfljfiJLQ '_ _.___-______ f F_____<,fl2£_kdrkgjén ‘jaqifiggid'j_2éji; __ _ _ _ V w __A ___L -__- ,jacijeifinoflnagjggmcm ”[153: 23m _____ _ _ _ 7 ;A_‘.__-fi___, _Q/c,rfigéén;cd ”wwwfiu ‘ .____#m__,____;._fi_, wad 0.1!. flmtm mmp rum ,0. LL gN n .MO E. Lu t IL 0 r. S O m a V 0 ...1a .m chord. Although the Mach number is very low field is practically con being conStant along rays from the apex 5.0 er .mww :Tmm m: . 3g an rlaa akx Imam gem mm”. .nYm tsw de Che ntrb hcwf noo ulImg mmm 63W vw.m .mmm Ea wand 11d.m we; Vbb mg thm. 90.... Werié 1963 graph The Reynolds number is 20.000 based on angle of attack ian gula r If ices on a ion of vort' Tiny air bubbles in water show the ver- tex pair for the flow above in a Section at the trailing edge of the wing. ONERA photograph War! Cross sect Wing 1 0... l é 1963 , 125. Vortex breakdown above a triangular wing. A thin wing of equilateral planform is seen from above at 20° angle of attack in a water tunnel. The Reynolds number is 5000 based on the chord ofIO cm. Filaments of colored fluid Show that the pair of laminar vortices that roll up from separation at the leading edges abruptly burst into pockets of turbulent fluid. ONERA photograph, Werlé I960a 126. Effect of Reynolds number on vortex breakdoxarn. As the Reynolds number is increased from 5000 in the photograph above to 10,000 here, the vortex breakdown moves upstream. This is almost its limiting position, unaltered by further increase of speed up to R=20,000. ONERA photograph, Werlé 19603 75 .,..-V._--..-...-..-.---.no.1..a-.r---.ro-I-uaoataltol lllllllllll ? 9613.112; kiflwpa gflaa my; ; g,J AMA/flan: 0;: 22:6. fi/QQQ _QE__._._._¢.‘ ML»? wwwflfiQL - AR 82‘ Source 6! dala 131.0 25:10“ Rel. 7.25 01.5 5.0.105 Ref.7.26 v2.0 6.0:10‘ Ref.7.26 figure 7.4] Comparison of thc calcu- lated and lhc cxpcrimcnlal lifl cncffi- ciunls for lhm. flat dcha wings with sharp a._ deg _ leading-edges aw W0 /n£/€g_j!j (J fl? ”Kc rgrjfj AR 3 0,33 1.51 2.38 3.16 3.97 v o D o O Figun: 7.43 Lifi cucl’ficicms fur dull: wings of various aspect ralinsn = 0.12:. Rc‘ .. 7 X “I" {Data from Refill) 0 1:9! +47-nJ 54;“), /v‘C.‘ I Figure 7.38 Wing geometry nomen- clature. (ancm-th/rfl, (fih7zw,J7L?/¢ 2/;an ark/7*? LJJ My /Vfl/h¢(/ fig/(C Virit’; Kym/’nrnf' J/Iflc ”(j/Iéfhf Lfihjf'tgf- Vyrfr y ' 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 AR Figure 7.39 Variation of potential-flow lift constant with planform paramcters. (From Re£ 7.24.) 5.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 ' 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 AR Figure 7.40 Variation of vortex-lift constant with pianform parameters» (From Ref. 7.2-4.) “kl-EX U (sh/K4,. £745,433: ”5/1/1244; “AV/7670) 5-3” «(V-r 745-- Vprvé'zt; 444-44 sgh.-3C".,,%/y “’"fifly‘fyjf 7‘73: L457” 9‘15 7L7c 0":(r'i-w Arr-1; V?" 4.31 ffij/IJ 9‘7“: afiwlf — Ibhfl/yyéj a—jghgyt/r 4.173, a- “(J/77¢;g/{L éflfl’f'cqgc 76’ 4‘5”} W‘Vfi/‘h ("6‘9 ('Vtr‘Ff (a) g E . ‘5‘ Vortex M! W S: Area ratio (may = 0/0 E CG at 0.12 o" M It 0.3 0.0 0.02 0.04 0.05 0-08 0.0 0.02 9.04 0.06 3155.50“ Sui-95m (b) (Cl figure 7.50 Effect of wing leadmg~edge extentiuus on the maximum angle of attack and the minimum lifi for the F-5 iamily of aircraft: (a) configuralions; (b) maximum angle of attack; (c) maximum lift. (From Ref. 7.32.) ...
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