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Seljuks (Central Asian Turks)•After political fragmentation, the Muslim community faced a reunification by the Seljuks (1055-1100). The Seljuks ruled over Syria, Iraq and Iran.•The Seljuks were Turks from Central Asia and they lived in Steppe territory, which had a lot of short grasses that weren't good for agriculture. Hence, they were a nomadic group that had horses. However, even though they didn't have a centralized government, they had a tribal confederation, which comprised of short-lasting tribal empires that occasionally arose from strong leadership.•These nomadic people were constantly fighting near the eastern border of the Muslim empire and central Asia and they posed as a huge threat because if the central government of the Muslim empire becomes too weak, they are vulnerable to attack by such nomadic tribes.•The Seljuks were the ruling clan of the tribal confederation and they were looking for lands to settle for grazing. Eastern Iran at this time was divided into small fragments or principalities, so by the time the Seljuks arrived, they began to fight and easily conquer everything in their way.•The Seljuks were a Sunni Muslim force. They had converted to Islam in the 10th century through Muslim missionaries who traveled to these remote places and pagan lands with the message of Islam. The 11th century marked the conquest of the Muslims led by a Seljuk family, who were already Muslim.•The Seljuks found the Islamic world divided not only politically, but also religiously, since the Buyids (Twelver Shi'ites) were running the caliphs and the Fatimids (Ismaili Shi'ites) were advancing from the west. As the Seljuks began their conquest in Eastern Iran, the Abbasid caliph invited them since this was a chance to restore the orthodoxy of the Islamic empire. •Toghrul Beg (Amir) entered Baghdad in 1055 and this marked the conquer by the Seljuks. With Seljuk rule, the Buyids were finally kicked out. For the first time Eastern Iran and Western Iran were united under the Seljuks and under a Sunni Muslim power. However, the Abbasid caliph, although he invited the Seljuks,