The internetworking working group becomes the first

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Unformatted text preview: se (DOD) for research in networking. The ARPANET is a success from the very beginning. Although originally designed to allow scientists to share data and access remote computers, e‐mail quickly becomes the most popular application. The ARPANET becomes a high‐speed digital post office as people use it to collaborate on research projects and discuss topics of various interests. The InterNetworking Working Group becomes the first of several standards‐setting entities to govern the growing network [10]. Vinton Cerf is elected the first chairman of the INWG, and later becomes known as a "Father of the Internet." [10] In the 1980s, Bob Kahn and Vinton Cerf are key members of a team that create TCP/IP, the common language of all Internet computers. For the first time the loose collection of networks which made up the ARPANET is seen as an "Internet", and the Internet as we know it today is born. The mid‐80s marks a boom in the personal computer and super‐minicomputer industries. The combination of inexpensive desktop machines and powerful, network‐ready servers allows many companies to join the Internet for the first time. Corporations begin to use the Internet to communicate with each other and with their customers. In the 1990s, the internet began to become available to the public. The World Wide Web was born. Netscape and Microsoft were both competing on developing a browser for the internet. Internet continues to grow and surfing the internet has become equivalent to TV viewing for many users. 4 breach [3]. These security breaches could also result in monetary losses of a large degree. Investment in proper security should be a priority for large organizations as well as common users. The security architecture of the internet protocol, known as IP Security, is a standardization of internet security. IP security, IPsec, covers the new generation of IP (IPv6) as well as the current version (IPv4). Although new techniques, such as IPsec, have been developed to overcome internet’s best‐known deficiencies, they seem to be insufficient [5]. Figure 2 shows a visual representation of how IPsec is implemented to provide secure communications. IPSec is a point‐to‐point protocol, one side encrypts, the other decrypts and both sides share key or keys. IPSec can be used in two modes, namely transport mode and tunnel modes. INTERNET ARCHITECTURE AND VULNERABLE SECURITY ASPECTS Fear of security breaches on the Internet is causing organizations to use protected private networks or intranets [4]. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has introduced security mechanisms at various layers of the Internet Protocol Suite [4]. These security mechanisms allow for the logical protection of data units that are transferred across the network. Figure 2: IPsec contains a gateway and a tunnel in order to secure communications. [17] The current version and new version of the Internet Protocol are analyzed to determine the security implications. Although security may exist within the protocol, certain attacks cannot be guarded against. These attacks are analyzed to determine other security mechanisms that may be necessary. 1. IPv4 and IPv6 Architectures IPv4 was design in 1980 to replace the NCP protocol on the ARPANET. The IPv4 displayed many limitations after two decades [6]. The IPv6 protocol was designed with IPv4’s shortcomings in mind. IPv6 is not a superset of the IPv4 protocol; instead it is a new design. 5 configuration hassles for the user but not the network’s administrators. The lack of embedded security within the IPv4 protocol has led to the many attacks seen today. Mechanisms to secure IPv4 do exist, but there are no requirements for their use [6]. IPsec is a specific mechanism used to secure the protocol. IPsec secures the packet payloads by means of cryptography. IPsec provides the services of confidentiality, integrity, and authentication [...
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