Jakob nielsen 1993 has identified these potential

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Unformatted text preview: rovide enough information to foster ease of use. Jakob Nielsen (1993) has identified these potential issues of navigation barriers; he figure out that it took 20 clicks to locate a stock quote and 12 clicks to get the location of a Starbucks coffee store. Zaret (2001) conducted a research by providing a sample of WAP enabled mobile phone to users for a week and information on the available content, as result, 70 per cent of the handset holders said they would not use a WAP phone within the next 12 months. Similarly, a research conducted in Japan in May 2001 produced same results that the participants in a large-scale trial of 3G handsets in complained about the short usage periods before 7 battery discharge and the phones were very hot to use due to heavy voltage drains. A commercial research conducted by TNS Interactive (2001) shows consistent results that show that the greatest barriers to m-commerce were, in order of priority: Security Tangibility and Physical experience. The WAP adoption has not been achieved up-to its assumptions even in that countries where internet usage is at its highest growth, for instance, Norway as first in internet usage with (63 per cent) USA being fourth (57 per cent) and Australia seventh (48 per cent), however despite there being almost twice as many cellular phone subscribers as internet households in the USA (in 2001), just 12 per cent of the mobile phone owners use WAP shopping. In addition, Phillips (2001) figure out that 39 per cent of cellular phone users were not ready for WAP or did not want to use WAP and 45 per cent of internet users and cellular phone owners were not willing to use WAP for shopping. Here a question arises that, how the marketers will meet the profile needs of cellular phones users to stimulate the WAP usage? According to Whitfield (2003) the wireless technology and mobile computing applications has been overestimated in marketing. It was estimated that in the middle of 2003 a million new consumers could make video calls, they could watching live football and check e-mail using their WAP enabled phones. The third generation technology (3G) is believed to be accountable for this revolution and new market promotion. However, there are numerous questions about this technology, for instance, what new marketing opportunities will emerge from this technology? What are the limitations of this new promising wireless mobile market? However, it has been noticed that the value creation to the user and to the customer is not always delivered using these emerging technologies. 1.2.1 M-commerce usability M-Commerce usability is one of the biggest challenging issues in adopting mcommerce (Ghinea and Angelides, 2004). Since, m-commerce has been deflated in the last few years therefore some doubts and concerns arose about its future (Jarvenpaa et al., 2000). In contrast to e-commerce, research shows new challenges in usability design in mobile commerce that are not present in e-commerce, such challenges includes but not limited to, the small screen size, limited screen resolution, limited processing capabilities, inadequate battery power of mobile devices, and bulky input mechanisms (Ghinea and Angelides, 2004). 8 According to Sears and Arora (2002) the most important user-related barrier in mobile commerce was the limited data entry and data retrieval capabilities. As compare to regular PCs, the data entry tools for mobile environment were significantly more limited and data entry performance was considerably slower for novice users. According to Venkatesh et al. (2003) the main challenges on using mobile commerce included, time pressure, location, convenience, device limitation, relevancy, structure, customization, lack of industry standards and industry-specific design rules. Nielsen et al. (2001) and Nielsen (1999) has identified several limitations on using cell phones to access mobile internet. These include: the shape of the mobile phones are not a suitable design for data-rich interaction because the distance between the human ear and mouth the keypad covers too much of the phone surface area, and being a numeric keypad, it is a poor device for entering alphanumeric characters the screen size of a mobile devices, i.e. cell phone or PDA is limited just 2-2.5 inches diagonally, as compare to desktop and laptop computers that have screen sizes range between 12 and 21 inches diagonally at present, the screen resolution and colors of mobile devices are considerably inferior as compare to PC-based screens Similar to Sears and Arora (2002) and Nielsen et al. (2001), Ozok and Wei (2004) has also identified additional usability difficulties with the use of mobile phones including one of the hands being occupied (holding mobile phone) while data entry is conducted with the other hand (using a stylus pen or the keypad). In addition, more difficulties involve information retrieval such as graphics being too small to read and take long time to download. In online sales, the user interface features including web page and content designs are key f...
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This document was uploaded on 12/31/2013.

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