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long run, the occurrence of such dead-ends; the users are generally frustrated and angry.
Therefore, links to pages that are no longer available should be removed on regular
basis (Condos et al., 2002).
6. Format and present content appropriately
The format and contents of WAP portal should be designed and managed according to
the particular characteristics of the mobile environment in order to achieve the user
expectations. Actually, short, informative and concise way to present WAP contents
enhance user experience and result as customer retention and satisfaction (Condos et al.,
7. Offer consistency in navigation and naming of menu options
Condos et al. (2002) recommended that WAP designers should make sure that the users
are facilitated with consistent navigation options throughout the site. This consistency in
navigation menus would help the user to browse site and make easier to retrieve
information. It will also impact to enhance the learnability and predictability levels of
the user interface. For instance, the use of "back" button, which when pressed should
take the user to the previous page and not one level up. Similarly, the options, which
when selected lead to the same site, should be given the same name throughout the site.
As a result, the options which would take the user to other sites should be named in a
8. Provide the user with sufficient prompting
According to Condos et al. (2002) the WAP designer should make it easy for users to
find clear, prompt and sufficient information and sufficient help and guidance should be
given throughout the site to complete common tasks. The interface should be made
user-friendly to support users how to select options, such as textboxes, order processing,
formatting, printing etc.
9. Minimize user input
Since, the nature of WAP services are different as compare to PC based systems,
therefore it is difficult to give input by using a WAP phone as compare to the keyboard,
therefore, the WAP designers should take it on a high priority that the maximum input 37 should be technically controlled by using check box buttons to save user time (Condos
et al., 2002).
10. Structure tasks to aid the user's interaction with the system
According to Condos et al. (2002) in WAP portals the information should be organized
and designed in such a way that provides the user with a clear, logical, brief and highly
structured choice of options to use. Therefore, WAP designers should ensure that
fundamental and common tasks can be carried out with the minimum amount of time
and interaction such as, scrolling, typing, etc. Therefore, the method of task-analysis
should be organized in order to highlight the steps that the user is most likely to follow
in order to complete a task. 2.8.3 Usability heuristics for User Interface Design
Pearrow Mark (2002) in his book “The wireless web usability handbook” has included
the “usability heuristics of user interface design” written by Nielsen (1990). He utilized
these usability heuristics of Nielsen (1990) with an objective to develop an
understanding for user interface design. These usability principles are generally known
as "heuristics" since these are normally considered as “thumb rules” for usability. These
heuristics, which start from basic human needs, are not just applicable to mobile
computing devices but to any system with which a human must interact. If a system
violates any one of these principles or is lacking it, then the system is probably
1. Visibility of system status
According to Nielsen (1990) the system should always keep users informed about what
is going on through appropriate feedback within reasonable time. User need some sort
of feedback that lets them know that their command is being processed, in other words
“something is happening” therefore they don’t need to click again. Many poorly
designed shopping interfaces have caused anger to users who have clicked multiple
times on the “Process Order” button when they could not get any immediate feedback.
The real problem here is the cumulative frustration that this sort of brokenness causes to
2. Use user’s own language
According to Nielsen (1990) the system should speak the user’s language, with words,
phrases and concepts familiar to the user, rather than system-oriented expressions.
Designers should follow real-world conventions thus information should appear in a
natural and logical order. Many systems are basically unusable because the designer 38 selected “cute”, “artistic”, ”poetic” or just downright jargon filled nomenclature for the
system. It is vital that, user-oriented vocabulary should be developed before designing
3. User control and freedom
According to Nielsen (1990) users generally choose system functions by mistake and
will need a clearly marked "emergency exit" to leave the unwanted situation without
having to go through an extended dialogue such as support undo or redo.
4. Consistency and standards
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- Fall '13
- The Land